Example Process Files

For more information on any of the examples (beyond the short description found below), you can open a document file (.doc) that is included in each example’s subdirectory.

Where are the example files located on my disk?

The "Examples" folder is created during installation under the "Auxiliary Folder" (or, "Aux Folder") that was specified during installation. More specifically, the "Examples" folder is under the "Process Library" folder that's automatically created during installation in the auxiliary directory location.

<Auxiliary Folder> / Process Library / Examples

The default location for the "Aux Folder" depends on your operating system.

Since the "Process Library" folder is made to be the default folder where the Process Database keeps the .spf files that are registered (deposited) in it, and all the example files are pre-deposited in your Process Database, you can right away search through the process library interface to locate an example file that has a feature that you wish to see demonstrated (e.g. Equipment Sharing or Heat Recovery or Independently Cycling Procedure, etc.).

Examples

There are many example models that come with the software. They range from very simple ( just a few unit procedure steps in them ) focused on demonstrating a very specific feature of the software (e.g. how to model kinetic reactions or kinetic fermentations), to fairly complex that attempt to capture an entire production process along with buffer preparation / distribution network. Since SuperPro Designer can be applied to a wide variety of industries, the examples are grouped into folders, each focusing on a specific domain of the product industries.

Currently the following example groups are available:

A. Bio-Materials

B. Pharamaceuticals

C. Nutraceuticals

D. Inorganic Materials

E. Bio-Fuels

F. Food Processing

G. Waste Valorization

H. Metallurgy

I. Environmental

J. Miscellaneous

K. EPA-MACT Reporting

L. COM-Engine

 

All of the example process models are pre-registered in your Process Database so that you can search for the one example that has a specific feature that you wish to see in action. You can use visit the "Search" tab of the Process Library interface, put together a search criterion and then locate the process file(s) that match your search.

For example, if you are interested in finding examples in the "Food Processing" group, just visit the "Search Tab" of the Library and select "Process" from the first list, then  "Keywords" on the second list, and from all possible keywords, select "Example Group::Food Processing".

 

After you click on the "Search" button, the table below shows all the example processes that exist under the "Food Processing" group of examples. Just select one (e.g. "CornRefinery_v13") and then click on the button. It will open the file in a new view so that you can inspect the contents of the file, generate reports, charts, etc.

Below you will find a listing and brief description of all example processes included with your software organized by domain. Please note that each file's name ends with a "_vXX" where "XX" represent the major version number of the software. For example, the model files for the first example below will be "bgal_v13a.spf', "bgal_v13b.spf" and "bgal_v13c.spf" for the v13 release and "bgal_v13a.spf", "bgal_v13b.spf" and "bgal_v13c.spf" for the v13 major release.

 

All example process files contain specific tags or keywords on topics that are highlighted and elaborated in the accompanying documentation file for that example. For example, if you look for the "Finish-to-Start Scheduling" keyword, the search will locate the following two files:
- Mab_vXXb.spf  and
- Mab_vXXc.spf
The accompanying file (mab.doc) explains in detail where the 'finish-to-start scheduling' was used and why and when you want to use this feature of SuperPro.

The topics can range from relatively simple concepts (like 'Equipment Sharing' or 'Stock Mixture Definition') to fairly complex (like 'Water Supply System Design').

 

A. Bio-MATERIALS

  1. ß-Galactosidase Production Plant
    This example process can be found under the 'Bgal' sub-folder of 'Bio-Materials' collection of processes ("Examples\Bio-Materials").
    There are three different versions (files bgal_vXXa, bgal_vXXb, and bgal_vXXc). It is a relatively complex design with several manufacturing units that models the production of ß-galactosidase. The first file, bgal_vXXa, emphasizes simulation, cost analysis and economic evaluation. The second file, bgal_vXXb, deals with throughput analysis and debottlenecking. The third file, bgal_v10c, covers issues of product formulation and packaging.

  2. Bio-Aromatics
    This example presents the production of Bio-Aromatics via fermentation. More specifically, it is a case study on the production of p-Hydroxybenzoic Acid (pHBA) using a strain of Corynebacterium Glutamicum. The plant engages production fermentors operating in staggered mode, each having a working volume of 257 m3 (approx. 68,000 gal). It generates 23 metric tons (MT)of pHBA per batch, resulting in an annual throughput of 30,000 MT.
    The process model file and a detailed description about the process model can be found in the 'BioAromatics' subfolder of the Examples folder.

  3. BioPolymer (PHA)
    This example analyzes the production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs), which are biodegradable bioplastics that have the potential to replace traditional plastics in various packaging applications, disposable goods, electronic accessories, etc. The bioconversion process utilizes bacteria Cupriavidus necator in 300 m3 fermentors, operating in fed-batch mode, using soybean oil as the main carbon source. After fermentation, the intracellular PHA granules are released by cell disruption and purified with a surfactant / enzyme treatment. The plant analyzed in this example produces 8,300 metric tons of PHAs per year.
    For more details, please review the complete documentation on this example as well as the SuperPro model capturing the entire production in the files that can be found in the "BioPolymer" subfloder of the "Examples\Bio-Materials" group.

  4. Citric Acid Production
    This example process can be found under the 'CitricAcid' sub-folder of sample Bio-Materials processes ("Examples\Bio-Materials").
    This example presents the production of citric acid, which is a commonly organic acid used in the food and beverage industries to preserve and enhance flavor. In this example citric acid is produced via fermentation using Aspergillus niger. The plant considered here produces around 18,000 MT of crystal citric acid per year, which represents approximately 1% of the current annual world demand.

  5. Production of ß-Farnesene
    This example is loosely based on the process of farnesene production described by Amyris patents and scientific papers. A metabolically engineered yeast is used to produce fernesene from glucose in batch culture. After fermentation ends, the extracellular medium (in an oil-in-water emulsion) is separated from the biomass through centrifugation. Next the emulsion is inverted by the addition of a surfactant and the resulting water-in-oil emulsion is heated so that the surfactant precipitates. Finally, the oily and aqueous phases re separated by centrifugation and the oil-rich phase is flash-distilled to produce highly pure farnesene. The model can be found in the 'Farnesene' subfolder of the 'Bio-Materials' collection.

  6. Production of Industrial Enzymes
    This example processes can be found under the 'IndEnzymes' sub-folder of sample Bio-Materials processes ("Examples\Bio-Materials").
    The process models in this folder simulate the microbial production of industrial enzymes. Glucose, ammonia and other medium components are converted into an industrial enzyme in a fed-batch, aerobic culture. The batch size is 160 m3 of fermentation broth, resulting in approximately 7 MT of enzyme protein per batch. There are two example models included:
    a) Base case. The final product is in liquid form.
    b) The final enzyme is in solid formate.

  7. Itaconic Acid
    This example processes can be found under the 'ItaconicAcid' sub-folder of sample Bio-Materials processes ("Examples\Bio-Materials").
    Itaconic acid was discovered in 1837 as a thermal decomposition product of citric acid. It was in 1932 that was found to be synthesized by certain microorganisms. This model process is based on conventional process technology to produce itaconic acid through microbial culture as described in literature. Itaconic acid demand is projected to reach 400,000 MT/year. In this example, the target was set to reach 40,000 MT/year which translates to about 5.3 MT/h.

  8. Lactic Acid
    This example analyzes a lactic acid production process from corn stover. Lactic acid is the simplest organic acid that has an asymmetric carbon atom and as such it is present in two optically active forms; the L(+) and the D(-) lactic acid. Only the L(+) isomer is found in the metabolism of humans and other mammals, although both enantiomers are found in the metabolism of different bacterial strains.
    Lactic acid is produced on industrial scale. Its main applications are in the food, chemical, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Lactic acid is the main feedstock to produce PLA, a biodegradable plastic. The production of PLA is the largest lactic acid application, with a share of 28%. Lactic acid as a food ingredient has multiple use such as enhancing flavor, increasing shelf life, and controlling the development of pathogenic microorganisms. It is a significant ingredient in canned vegetables, yogurt, and butter. It is a preservative and acidulant in pickled vegetables and olives. Moreover, it is a natural solvent used for metal cleaning and other mechanical cleaning applications. In the pharmaceutical industry it has increasing application in drug manufacturing and as an electrolyte in intravenous solutions. Finally, in the personal care category it is used in skin care products and moisturizers.
    The model for the production of lactic acid can be found under the "Lactic Acid" subfolder in the "Examples\Bio-Materials" group.

  9. Lysine Production
    This example process can be found under the 'Lysine' sub-folder of sample Bio-Materials processes ("Examples\Bio-Materials").
    This example models a plant which produces 30,000 metric tons (MT) of lysine annually. Lysine is an essential amino acid for humans and animals. It is a key building block for muscle proteins, and plays a major role in calcium absorption and the production of hormones, enzymes and antibodies. However, lysine is not synthesized in animals. As a result, it must be ingested as lysine or lysine-containing proteins. In plants and bacteria, it is synthesized from aspartic acid (aspartate).

  10. Micro-Algal Biorefinery
    Microalgae species such as Dunaliella salina are well-known for their high content of valuable nutritional and bioactive chemical compounds such as carotenoids, glycerol, lipids, and proteins which are suitable for nutraceutical & cosmeceutical applications. This example proposes a sustainable process for the production of different fractions such as carotenoids, glycerol, polar lipids and proteins from the microalga D. salina.
    Microalgae are a promising feedstock as a source of biofuels, proteins and bioactive compounds that can help address the problem of the growing demand for renewable sources in response to the increasing world population and the need for sustainable energy and food sources. There is an economic need to convert microalgal biorefineries into viable processes, moving away from microalgal processes solely focused on biofuel production. Biorefineries can be converted into viable cultivation to obtain a portfolio of valuable products.
    This example process can be found under the 'MicroAlgalBiorefinery' sub-folder of Bio-Materials sample processes ("Examples\Bio-Materials").

  11. 1,3-Propanediol (PDO) Production
    1,3-propanediol, commonly abbreviated to PDO, is a colorless viscous organic compound. It is one of oldest known fermentation products. PDO can be employed in the production of adhesives, coatings, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals. It can be used as an antifreeze or heat-transfer fluid. It can serve as a monomer for the synthesis of various polymers, notably polyesters, polyurethanes and polyethers. The production model for PDO presented here is loosely based on the process of DuPont Tate & Lyle Bioproducts, described in two patents. For more details please consult the Word file included in the 'PDO' folder under the "Bio-Materials" collection of "Examples".

  12. Rhamnolipids
    This example analyzes a rhamnolipids production process. Rhamnolipids like sophorolipids, the other biosurfactant production example of SuperPro Designer, are glycolipids with surface-active properties. Both substances can be produced via fermentation of yeast species and bacteria, and as such they are called biosurfactants. The fermentation media consist of lipids or fatty acid molecules, among other nutrients. The microorganisms, which are grown in the aqueous phase cannot have access to the water insoluble oil phase and cannot utilize the hydrophobic carbon source.
    The global effort to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and the public’s preference for biodegradable chemicals produced from renewable sources favours the use of biosurfactants rather than the traditional synthetic surfactants. This market trend is expected to continue in the coming years, allowing for growth opportunities in the global production of rhamnolipids and biosurfactants in general, even if their production cost is currently considerably higher than the synthetic alternatives
    This example processes can be found under the 'Rhamnolipids' sub-folder of sample Bio-Materials processes ("Examples\Bio-Materials").

  13. Sophorolipids
    This example analyzes a sophorolipid production process. Sophorolipids are glycolipids with surface-active properties. They can be produced via fermentation by non-pathogenic yeast species. In fermentation media that consist of lipids or fatty acid molecules, among other nutrients, the microorganisms cannot have access to the water insoluble oil phase and cannot utilize the hydrophobic carbon source. For this reason, the microorganisms, which exist in the aqueous phase, produce glycolipids in order to emulsify and be able to utilize the hydrophobic carbon source.
    The functionality of sophorolipids makes them a suitable ingredient for several applications in agriculture, food, biomedicine, homecare, healthcare, and cosmetics industries
    This example processes can be found under the 'Sophorolipids' sub-folder of sample Bio-Materials processes ("Examples\Bio-Materials").

  14. Production Vanillin from Lignin
    This example analyzes the industrial production of vanillin from lignin. Vanillin is one of the most prominent flavoring agents and its sustainable production is of high interest to the food processing industry. Lignin is introduced to the facility in an aqueous alkaline solution received from the pulp and paper industry and is oxidized to produce vanilin and other phenolic compounds. Product purification involves several processing steps, including liquid-liquid extraction, distillation, crystallization, centrifugation and drying. The accompanying 'ReadMe' file explains several advanced modeling concepts such as solvent in pull-mode, steam and electricity co-generation, and heat integration (or heat recovery). In the documentation file you will also find detailed information on the material requirements and the economics of the process, coupled with sensitivity analysis to investigate the impact of production scale to economics.  The model can be found in the 'Lignin' folder under the "Bio-Materials" collection in the "Examples" folder.

  15. Xanthan Gum
    This example process can be found under the 'XanthanGum' sub-folder of Bio-Materials sample processes ("Examples\Bio-Materials").
    This example captures the production of xanthan gum from glucose by means of fermentation. Xanthan gum is a water-soluble thickening and stabilizing agent, widely used in the food, healthcare and oil industries. It is a hetero-polysaccharide with a primary structure consisting of repeating penta-saccharides formed by two units of glucose, two units of mannose and one glucuronic acid. Xanthan gum is produced by fermentation of bacteria of hte Xanthomonas genus. Glucose or sucrose is typically used as the carbon source for the fermentation process. The global xanthan gum market demand is expanding very rapidly. This trend is mainly due to the global evolution of eating habits as people in developed and developing countries are starting to prefer processed foods with particular textures.

  16. Yeast Extract
    This example analyzes a yeast extract production process. Yeasts, as intact cells, are the most important and most frequently used microorganisms in the food industry (e.g. in bread-making). Yeast extract is also one of the most frequently used substrates in the fermentation industry, but also an ingredient in the food industry. Yeast cells consists of a number of macromolecules, mainly proteins but also nucleic acids, DNA, RNA and complex carbohydrates. Each macromolecule offers a functionality to the cell. Yeast extract consists of cell contents of yeast without the cell walls.
    Yeast extract is marketed in various forms such as concentrated paste and powder. The flavor of yeast extract is primarily savory. Key product properties include taste enhancement and ability to partially replace salt. For this reason it is used in the food industry as flavor enhancer in snacks, prepared meal, sauces and seasonings such as in soy sauce, stock cubes and ketchup. Another major consumer is the animal feed industry
    For more details please consult the Word file included in the 'YeastExtract' folder under the "Bio-Materials" collection of "Examples".

  17. Levulinic Acid
    This example process can be found under the 'Levulinic Acid' sub-folder of the sample Bio-Material processes ("Examples\Bio-Materials").
    This example analyzes the production of levulinic acid from lignocellulosic biomass (corn stover in this case), based on the Biofine process. Biomass hydrolysis and levulinic acid formation take place in the same reactors. Formic acid, furfural and humins are co-produced in the process. The products are separated and purified in the downstream section by a series of distillation columns operating at different pressures and temperatures. Levulinic acid is separated from the lighter water, formic acid, and furfural, in the stillage of the first column. It is then separated from less volatile components in a second column. The mixture of water, formic acid and furfural is separated, initially be removing the formic acid. The formic acid-water azeotrope has considerable differences at varying pressures. As such, a pressure swing distillation concept is used to separate the formic acid. Furfural is partially miscible in water and forms an azeotrope with water. Its separation is achieved with the combination of two distillation columns and a decanter in between that manage to break the azeotrope.

B. PHARMACEUTICALS

  1. Cannabinoids
    Cannabinoids are a class of lipophilic molecules that bind to certain protein receptors in animals, regulating various homeostatic and physiological functions including the modulation of pain and inflammation. Some of these molecules are endogenously produced by animals, and hence named endocannabinoids; typical examples of endocannabinoids include anandamide and 2-arachidonylglycerol. Most known cannabinoids, however, are produced by plants, especially by Cannabis plants; these are called phytocannabinoids.
    intent of this example is to simulate a relatively large plant for producing polypeptide-based bio-pharmaceuticals. Recently, there has been a great deal of research in academia and industry to produce cannabinoids using genetically engineered microorganisms instead of plants or chemical synthesis.
    This example process can be found under the 'Cannabinods' sub-folder of the sample Pharmaceutical processes ("Examples\Pharmaceuticals").

  2. Cell & Gene Therapy Production
    Stem cell therapy is a nascent but fast-growing diefl within the pharmaceutical industry. Stem cells are undifferentiated cells which are capable of transforming into different cell types. Human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are one of several variieties of human stem cells. They are capable of transforming into bone cells, muscle cells, cartilage cells, etc. As a result MSCs have potential to be used in regenerative medicine to repair injured tissues and restore their lost functions. MSCs can also be used to provide additional functions or improve existing functions in organs, after proper genetic modification.
    A conceptual process for producing a stem cell therapy product was modelled and economically evaluated in this example. The development of the model was based on data from literature supported by our experience with related processes and our engineering judgement. Note that cell therapy is a very new field and therefore there is a great deal of variability in the cell production and purification techniques that are currently applied by various organizations.
    This example process can be found under the 'CellTherapy' sub-folder of the sample Pharmaceutical processes ("Examples\Pharmaceuticals").

  3. Hyaluronic Acid
    This example describes the microbial production of Hyaluronic Acid. Hyaluronic Acid is a highly viscous and hygroscopic polysaccharide that has numerous medical and cosmetic applications. In this example, Hyaluronic Acid is produced by fed-batch fermentation, recovered by centrifugation, and purified by ultrafiltration, activated carbon treatment and isopropanol precipitation. The 'Readme' file for that example, explains how to model fermentation processes in fed-batch mode. This example is recommended to users interested in the production of medium-to-high value bioproducts, such as cosmetic ingredients.
    The process model file and a detailed description about the process model can be found in the 'HyaluronicAcid' subflolder of the Pharmaceuticals collection of examples.

  4. Ibuprofen Production
    Ibuprofen is one of the three commonly available over the counter non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), namely aspirin, ibuprofen, and acetaminophen. It acts on a group of compounds known as prostaglandins to reduce pain, inflammation, and fever. Because prostaglandins have a broad spectrum of effects, not all effects of ibuprofen are beneficial.
    In 2019, the market size of ibuprofen was estimated at around $573 million. According to a study by Beroe Inc, the global ibuprofen market size is estimated to grow to $645 million by 2023, at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 2–3%.[6] Another study by Beroe suggests that the total annual global demand for the ibuprofen is expected to reach 45,233 MT by 2022 [7].
    As an OTC drug, ibuprofen is a popular painkiller that is also used to treat fever. The demand for ibuprofen is steadily increasing. It has been observed that the developed regions, such as the USA and Europe, have a higher demand for ibuprofen than the developing side of the world.
    This example process can be found under the 'Ibuprofen' sub-folder of the sample Pharmaceutical processes ("Examples\Pharmaceuticals")

  5. Insulin Production
    The intent of this example is to simulate a relatively large plant for producing polypeptide-based bio-pharmaceuticals. The generation of the flowsheet was based on information available in the patent and technical literature complemented with our engineering judgment and experience from other recombinant products. A variation of this process has been commercialized by Eli Lilly and Co.
    This example process can be found under the 'Insulin' sub-folder of the sample Pharmaceutical processes ("Examples\Pharmaceuticals").

  6. Monoclonal Antibody (MAB) Production
    This example demonstrates a ‘state-of-the-art’ process using monoclonal antibody production technology in the bio-pharmaceutical industry. This process produces 19 Kg of purified product per batch. There are several revisions of the process included (Mab_vXXa.spf, Mab_vXXb.spf and Mab_vXXc.spf). For more details about the process modeled in this example interested users are encouraged to review the "mab.doc" file in that directory.
    This example process can be found under the 'MAB' sub-folder of the sample Pharmaceutical processes ("Examples\Pharmaceuticals").

  7. mRNA Vaccines Production
    The production of messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccines such as those developed against COVID-19 by Moderna and Pfizer / BioNTech. mRNA is synthesized in a cell-free (enzymatic) reaction (in vitro transcription), which is carried out in a rocking bioreactor. The product is purified by ultrafiltration / diafiltration, affinity (oligo-dT) chromatography, and hydrophobic interaction chromatography. The purified mRNA is encapsulated within lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) using microfluidic mixers and formulated with an adequate buffer. This example is recommended to users interested in biopharmaceutical and enzymatic (cell-free) processes.
    There are two variations of the production model: one simplified and one detailed. Both models (.spf files) and extended documentations can be found in the "mRNA Vaccines" folder under the "Examples\Pharmaceuticals" collection of example processes.

  8. pDNA
    The subject of this pair of process models is the production of pharmaceutical grade plasmid DNA (pDNA). Plasmids are circular DNA molecules that find applications in gene therapy, vaccines, and molecular biology research. In this example, pDNA is produced in bacteria Escherichia coli by fed-batch fermentation. The cells are disrupted by alkaline lysis to release the pDNA. Most contaminants are subsequently removed by selective precipitation. Finally, pDNA is purified by ultrafiltration / diafiltration, anion-exchange chromatography and hydrophobic interaction chromatography. This example is recommended to users interested in the production of biopharmaceuticals and highly viscous biomolecules.
    This example process can be found under the 'pDNA' sub-folder of the sample Pharmaceutical processes ("Examples\Pharmaceuticals")

  9. Penicillin
    Penicillin was one of the first antibiotics produced for the pharmaceutical market. It is a secondary metabolite (i.e., a metabolic product that is not required for the survival of an organism) of certain species of Penicillium fungi. It is produced when growth of the fungus is inhibited by stress.
    Penicillin antibiotics were some of the first effective medications against bacterial infections caused by staphylococci and streptococci. Penicillin medications are still widely used today, though many types of bacteria have developed resistance following extensive use. Nevertheless, the market for penicillin has been steady in recent years and is projected to maintain its multi-billion dollar sales volume for the forseeable future.
    This example process can be found under the 'Penicillin' sub-folder of the sample Pharmaceutical processes ("Examples\Pharmaceuticals").

  10. Pharmaceutical Tables Production
    This example process can be found under the 'PharmTbl' sub-folder of the sample Pharmaceutical processes ("Examples\Pharmaceuticals").
    It demonstrates a typical process for making pharmaceutical tablets. This particular process involves mixing of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) with various excipients, homogenization of the suspension, followed by drying/granulation, then table formation and coating.

  11. Comparison Between Single-Use vs Stainless Steel Equipment in an MAB Process
    This example process can be found under the 'SSvsSingleUseEquip' sub-folder of the sample Pharmaceutical processes ("Examples\Pharmaceuticals").
    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are a fast-growing segment of the pharmaceutical industry. Different mAbs have a variety of therapeutic applications due to their ability to block specific molecular functions in cells or to modulate cellular signalling pathways. In addition, mAbs have the ability to bind to cancer cell-specific antigens in order to induce an immune response against the target cancer cell. Furthermore, mAbs have very high molecular specificity, meaning that they only bind to relevant molecules or cell structures which reduces the potential for side effects. As a result, mAbs are currently used to treat various types of cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, severe asthma, macular degeneration, multiple sclerosis and other diseases. The market size for mAbs in 2015 was around $85 billion and it is projected to reach $140 billion by 2024. In this example, we attempt to evaluate the impact of disposables (single-use equipment) on the material and consumable usage, as well as the overall capital and operating cost.

  12. Streptomycin Production
    Streptomycin produced by Streptomyces griseus (S. griseus) is a broad-spectrum antibiotic that is highly effective against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive organisms. Streptomycin has been found to be very useful in treating infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which are particularly resistant to penicillin. It is also useful in combating plant diseases caused by bacteria because it acts systemically in plants.
    According to the World Health Organization (WHO), streptomycin is the safest drug used to treat tuberculosis. Streptomycin has been added to the WHO's list of essential medicines for public healthcare.
    This example process can be found under the 'Streptomycin' sub-folder of the sample Pharmaceutical processes ("Examples\Pharmaceuticals").

  13. Production of a Synthetic Pharmaceutical Intermediate
    This example process can be found under the 'SynPharm' sub-folder of the sample Pharmaceutical processes ("Examples\Pharmaceuticals").
    This example analyzes the production of a synthetic pharmaceutical intermediate, which is formed by condensation of quinaldine and hydroquinone. Several reaction and separation steps are required to synthesize and purify the product. The generation of the flowsheet ("SynPharm_vXX") was based on information available in the patent and technical literature. Particular emphasis is placed on throughput analysis and debottlenecking issues. You will notice that there are several versions of this particular design case file. One of them is special, in the sense, that it is demonstrating how to take advantage of the latest addition to Pro-Designer’s features: using database facilities and resources. The file that includes such facility and resource allocations is named "SynPharm_vXXDB.spf". Elaborate description about how to take advantage of these latest features of Pro-Designer, using this example as a vehicle, are included in the "doc" file named "SynPharmDB.doc".

  14. Vial
    This example process can be found under the 'Vial' sub-folder of the sample Pharmaceutical processes ("Examples\Pharmaceuticals").
    This deals with a fill-finish process that manufactures 5 mL lyophilized vials containing a therapeutic protein. For a typical biopharmaceutical, the fill-finish step involves thawing of the frozen product protein solution, preparation of the fill buffer, sterile filtration of the solution and filling into the vials. Then lyophilization is carried out. Finally the vials are inspected before release for packaging and distribution. There are two revisions of for this process (Vial_vXXa.spf and Vial_vXXb.spf). For more details, please review the related documentation included under the "Vial" folder.

  15. Comparison Between Single-Use vs Stainless Steel Equipment in an MAB Process
    This example process can be found under the 'SSvsSingleUseEquip' sub-folder of the sample Pharmaceutical processes ("Examples\Pharmaceuticals").
    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are a fast-growing segment of the pharmaceutical industry. Different mAbs have a variety of therapeutic applications due to their ability to block specific molecular functions in cells or to modulate cellular signalling pathways. In addition, mAbs have the ability to bind to cancer cell-specific antigens in order to induce an immune response against the target cancer cell. Furthermore, mAbs have very high molecular specificity, meaning that they only bind to relevant molecules or cell structures which reduces the potential for side effects. As a result, mAbs are currently used to treat various types of cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, severe asthma, macular degeneration, multiple sclerosis and other diseases. The market size for mAbs in 2015 was around $85 billion and it is projected to reach $140 billion by 2024. In this example, we attempt to evaluate the impact of disposables (single-use equipment) on the material and consumable usage, as well as the overall capital and operating cost.


C. NUTRACEUTICALS

  1. Omega-3 Fatty Oils Production
    This example presents an industrial unit for the production of Omega-3 oils. Omega-3 oils are polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) that have been shown to support improved brain health and reduced risk for heart disease.  The manufacturing plant analyzed in this example utilizes microalgae fermentation and produces around 380 kg/h of purified omega-3 oils. Case A (this model) utilizes hexane for product extraction. Case B utilizes supercritical CO2 for production extraction.
    The process model file and a detailed description about the process model can be found in the Pharmaceuticals subfolder of the Examples folder

  2. Collagen Production
    This example process and pertinent extensive documentation can be found under the "Collagen" sub-folder of the  "Pharmaceuticals" collection of processes ("Examples\Pharmaceuticals").
    This example describes the production of collagen from chicken feet as a raw material. Collagen is the main structural protein present in animal connected tissues such as cartilage, bones, tendons, ligaments and skin. Collagen has been found in low market value by-products of the chicken processing industry.

  3. Probiotics
    This example presents an industrial unit for the production of probiotics. Probiotics are live bacteria that have been reported to confer multiple health benefits on the recipients thus being of high interest to the food and biopharmaceutical industry. Probiotic seed cultures are prepared to a dedicated seed bioreactior train and the main product is cultivated in large-scale fermentors.  The bacteria are harvested via centrifugation and are blended with a carbohydrate protectant mixture prior to freeze-drying. There's a "ReadMe" file that explains several fundamental modeling concepts and functionalities of SuperPro, including equipment sharing and staggered mode operation of equipment resources.
    The process model file and a detailed description about the process model can be found in the 'Probiotics' subfolder of the Pharmaceuticals collection of examples.

D. INORGANIC MATERIALS

  1. Boric Acid Production
    This example process can be found under the 'Boric Acid' sub-folder of the collection of 'Inorganic Materials' processes ("Examples\Inorganic Materials").
    This model is based on the original work of Professor Mehmet Gönen and his collaborators at Suleyman Demirel University, Turkey (Gönen et al, 2021).
    Boric acid is a fundamental boronic compound produced from various boron-based minerals (e.g., colemanite, tincal and ulexite) or naturally occurring boron brines. It is a white, odorless powder that exhibits a monoclinic crystalline structure and has good solubility in water and other polar solvents. It is generally used as a starting material for the production of many boron-based chemicals such as borate esters, synthetic organic borate salts, boron carbine, boron trihalides and fluoroborates, which are used in high-tech applications such as heat and scratch-resistant glasses for smartphones, computers and TVs.
    In the process, leaching of the ore with sulfuric acid produces a pregnant leach solution in boric acid, but that contains impurities such as magnesium sulfate and strontium sulfate. Following leaching, the pregnant leach solution undergoes crystallization to produce boric acid crystals contaminated by co-crystallized magnesium and strontium sulfates. The purity of this boric acid is then increased above 99.5% by re-dissolution in water and re-crystallization.
    More details about the process can be found in the associated Word document ('Boric Acid.docx') included in the same folder ('Inorganic Materials/Boric Acid').

  2. Cement Manfacturing
    This example simulates a cement manufacturing process plant in which cement clinker is first produced by mixing clay and limestone, and then clinker is mixed with gypsum to produce cement. The process is as follows: First, clay and limestone are crushed, ground and mixed in specific proportions. The homogenized mixture is then fed to the kiln system which includes a cyclone preheater tower, a precalciner, a rotary kiln and a grate cooler. The mixture is first preheated in the cyclone preheaters, then it is precalcined in the precalciner, then it is converted into clinker in the rotary kiln, and finally it is cooled down in a grate cooler. Subsequently, the produced clinker is mixed with gypsum and ground once more to form the cement. The plant operates continuously for 330 days per year and it processes 260 MT/h of limestone, 65 MT/h of clay and 12.5 MT/h of gypsum to produce 218 MT/h (corresponding to 1.73 million MT/year) of cement.
    This example process can be found under the 'Cement Manufacturing' sub-folder of the collection of 'Inorganic Materials' processes ("Examples\Inorganic Materials").

E. Bio-Fuels

  1. Algal-Oil Production
    This example process can be found under the 'AlgalOil' sub-folder of the sample Pharmaceutical processes ("Examples\Bio-Fuels").
    In this example, we demonstrate a basic representation of algae production and purification process that generates a lipid, tripalmitin, a triglyceride of palmitic acid abbreviated as "TAG" in the model. TAG could subsequently be converted into bio-diesel or jet fuel. This example was created based on the work by Dr. Daniel Klein-Marcuschamer (DKM) at the Joint BioEnergy Institute in Emeryville, CA.

  2. Bio-Diesel Production from Soybean Oil
    This example process can be found under the 'BioDiesel' sub-folder of the sample Pharmaceutical processes ("Examples\Bio-Fuels").
    The focus of this example is the production of biodiesel from soybean oil and it is based on a process model developed by scientists at a research center of USDA. For more details about the process modeled in this example interested users are encouraged to review the "biodiesl.doc" file in the relevant directory.

  3. Corn Stover to Ethanol Conversion
    This example process can be found under the 'Ethanol' sub-folder of the sample Pharmaceutical processes ("Examples\Bio-Fuels").
    This example analyzes the production of ethanol from corn stover, which is an abundant source of lignocellulosic (LC) biomass in the US and other parts of the world. The model can be readily modified to represent conversion of other types of LC biomass, such as sugar cane bagasse, wheat straw, rice straw, softwood, switch grass, etc.

  4. Corn Stover to Isobutanol Conversion
    This example process can be found under the 'Isobutanol' sub-folder of the sample Pharmaceutical processes ("Examples\Bio-Fuels").
    This model captures a process that produces cellulosic isobutanol from corn stover. Isobutanol is a butanol isomer with a boiling point of 107.9° C and a limited solubility in water (~8.5% at 20°C). It has a wide range of industrial applications: as a precursor, it is used in the production of various isobutyl esters, pharmaceuticals and automotive paint cleaner additives; as a solvent, it is used in the paints and coatings industry; it can also be blended with gasoline in higher concentrations than ethanol and used as an automotive fuel.

  5. Wood Biomass Pyrolysis
    This example process and pertinent extensive documentation can be found under the 'Wood Pyrolysis' sub-folder of Bio-Fuels collection of processes ("Examples\Bio-Fuels").
    This example analyzes a wood biomass pyrolysis process. Pyrolysis is a thermal treatment at increased temperatures in a non-oxidizing environment which converts the organic raw materials to solid char, liquid bio-oil and gases.

F. Food Processing

  1. Sugar Production from Beets
    This example process can be found under the 'BeetSugal' sub-folder of Food Processing sample processes ("Examples\Food Processing").
    There are several model processes (.spf files) included that demonstrate few variations on the production of sugar from beets. The process consists of the following steps:
    Beet Preparation (washing, slicing)
    Sugar Extraction (diffusion)
    Sugar Purification
    Water Evaporation
    Sugar Crystallization
    Sugar Drying and Storing
    The example simulates a plant that operates 1,920 hours (or 80 days) a year and produces 52.9 MT/h (or 101,507 MT/yr) of sugar by processing 485 MT/h (or 931,200 MT/yr) of beets. There are several by-products sold for additional income (pulp, molasses, carbonation-lime residue). The carbonation-lime residue can be sold as fertilizer; pulp and molasses are sold as animal feed.
    The model files and detailed documentation can be found in the "BeetSugar" sub-folder.

  2. Carrageenan Production.
    This example process can be found under the 'Carrageenan' sub-folder of Food Processing sample processes ("Examples\Food Processing").
    This model captures the production of carrageenans from seaweed. Carrageenans are specialty food ingredients produced in small quantities around the globe. They are found in various species of seaweeds (the 'raw material' used for this process). For more details about the process, please consult the related documentation under the "Carrageenan" folder.

  3. Modeling & Optimization of a Brewery Process
    This example process can be found under the 'Brewery' sub-folder of Food Processing sample processes ("Examples\Food Processing").
    The model simulates the operation of an industrial beer production and packaging facility. Barley malt (12,000 kg/batch) and corn grits (6,000 kg/batch) are converted to beer through the fermentation of starch-derived sugars by brewer’s yeast (Sachcaromycaes cerevisiae). The plant production scale is 126,000 L of beer per batch (5.0% alcohol by volume). An optimized case of the brewery example has also been produced as an evolution of the base case. Multiple production fermentors and conditioning tanks operating in staggered mode (out of phase) have been engaged in order to reduce the cycle time of the process and increase its throughput. Heat integration reduces its energy consumption. The example files for this process and detailed documentation can be found under the "Brewery" folder.

  4. Cassava Refinery
    This example process can be found under the 'CassavaRefinery' sub-folder of Food Processing sample processes ("Examples\Food Processing").
    The Cassava refinery model, presents a cassava production facility that fractionates cassava roots to produce tapioca starch and pulp; then hydrolyses part of the starch to produce beta-cyclodextrins.

  5. Integrated Cheese Plant
    This example process can be found under the 'Cheese' sub-folder of Food Processing sample processes ("Examples\Food Processing").
    The model included here, deals with an integrated milk processing plant that produces cheese, butter, whey protein concentrate (WPC), and food-grade ethanol. The development of the example was based on data that are available in the literature. The model's .spf files and detailed documentation can be found under the "Cheese" folder.

  6. Cocoa Processing Plant
    This example process can be found under the 'Cocoa' sub-folder of Food Processing sample processes ("Examples\Food Processing")
    This example simulates a plant that produces various qualities of chocolates and cocoa powders from cocoa beans. Cocoa beans can be processed in many different ways. Each step can be performed with different competing technologies. In this example, the process is using fermented and dried cocoa beans as raw material. Cocoa beans contain phenolic compounds, such as flavanols (incl. epicatechin), procyanidins and more flavonoids which seem to have positive cardiovascular effects. The cocoa beans also contain between 0.1% and0.7% caffeine (compared to coffee beans with contain 1.2% caffeine). For more details, please consult the accompanying documentation file. The SuperPro model can be found under the "Cocoa" subfloder located under the "Food Processing" category of "Examples".

  7. Corn Refinery
    This example process can be found under the 'CornRefinery' sub-folder of Food Processing sample processes ("Examples\Food Processing").
    The model captures a corn wet-milling process integrated with the production of glucose and fructose syrups. Cereal grains are the base of the human nutrition pyramid. As a result, they are frequently consumed as cereals (such as in pasta, bread, flour, rice, breakfast cereals,etc.) and/or cereal-based other food ingredients such as starches, gluten, glucose/fructose syrups, cereal-based alcoholic beverages, etc. Moreover, cereals are the basic component of animal feed. Therefore, they become part of the meat-production chain. In the last century, the role of cereals has increased in other (non-food) areas of society. For instance, advances in biotechnology have made it economically viable to produce non-food products such as biofuels, plastics, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, etc. from cereals. In terms of cultivation and consumption, corn is the most common cereal in America (whereas wheat and rice are the most common cereals in Europe and Asia respectively). The current global production of corn is over 1 billion MT (rice and wheat have an estimated annual production of around 700 million MT each, - FAO 2016). The file resides in the "CornRefinery" subfolder of the "Examples" folder.

  8. Production of Dextrose
    This example process can be found under the 'Dextrose' sub-folder of Food Processing sample processes ("Examples\Food Processing").
    This model analyzes the production of dextrose crystals from glucose syrup 95%. The syrup is made up of 29% water and a glucose purity of 95% (on a dry basis). The remaining 5% of solids are composed of higher sugars such as maltose, maltotriose, etc. The production of glucose syrup 95% can be found in the Corn Refinery example (see above). Many corn refinery plants, worldwide, integrate the production of dextrose. For more details, please consult the documentation found in the "Dextrose" folder.

  9. Production of Mannitol
    This example process can be found under the 'Mannitol' sub-folder of Food Processing sample processes ("Examples\Food Processing").
    This process captures the production of crystalline mannitol from 95% pure glucose syrup. Mannitol is a sugar polyol with various applications in the food industries. Mannitol can be produced from a sugar monomer called mannose through hydrogenation of mannose's aldehyde group. Both mannose and mannitol are naturally occurring molecules. Mannose is present as a free sugar in many foods and as a component of the polymer hemicellulose, while mannitol is found in certain species of seaweed. For more details on this process please consult the related document under the "Mannitol" folder.

  10. Modified Starches
    This example process can be found under the 'ModifiedStarches' sub-folder of Food Processing sample processes ("Examples\Food Processing").
    The Modified Starch Production process presents a model that captures the production of hydroxyl-propylated starches (HP starches) that are key ingredients in the food and beverage industry. However, new processing techniques and the increasing demand for biodegradable and renewable resources have opened new markets to starch products beyond the food industry.

  11. Orange Juice Powder
    This example process can be found under the 'OJPowder' sub-folder of Food Processing sample processes ("Examples\Food Processing").
    This example describes a process for producing dehydrated orange juice powder. The process consists of the following steps: fruit preparation (washing, sorting, and sizing), concentrated juice production (extraction, finishing, concentration, and pasteurization), formation of powder and packaging.

  12. Potato Refinery
    This example process can be found under the 'PotatoRefinery' sub-folder of Food Processing sample processes ("Examples\Food Processing").
    The example simulates a potato fractionation process that produces multiple co-products. Potato is the fourth-largest food crop globally, following maize, wheat and rice. Potatoes are starchy like cereals, but they are tuberous corps rather grains, and they contain a larger percentage of water (compared to cereals). A simple potato fractionation process typically coagulates the proteins of the potato juice and separates them for use in the animal feed industry. The byproducts of potato processing are protamylase and fibers. Protamylase, which mainly consists of sugars and ash, has a potassium contents of 15% and it is typically recycled to the potato fields as a fertilizer. Fibers can be either sold as feed or used as combustion fuel to provide energy to the processing plant. The example process can be found in the "Food Procesing" subfloder of the examples.

  13. Production of Sorbitor
    This example process can be found under the 'Sorbitol' sub-folder of Food Processing sample processes ("Examples\Food Processing").
    The process presented here captures the production of splay dried sorbitol. Sorbitol is a food and pharmaceutical ingredient produced in bulk quantities around the world. From a chemical standpoint, sorbitol is a hydrogenated glucose and for this reason, it is also called glucitol. Since sorbitol is produced from glucose and since glucose is usually derived from the hydrolysis of starch, it is very common for plants that produce starch to also produce sorbitol. Details on starch hydrolysis towards the production of 95% glucose syrups can be found in the Corn Refinery example (see above).

  14. Sunflower Oil Production
    This example process can be found under the 'SunflowerOil' sub-folder of Food Processing sample processes ("Examples\Food Processing").
    This model simulates the production of refined suflower oil from sunflower seeds. Sunflower oil is a popular vegetable oil frequently used for home cooking; it is also used as a food ingredient in many industrial applications. Due to the productivity of sunflowers, the nutritional quality of their oil and the man applications of sunflower oil, this product is one of the top four vegetable oils in the world. The example model is included under the "Food Processing" subfolder.

G. WASTE VALORIZATION

  1. Pectin from Citrus Peels Production
    This example process can be found under the 'PectinFromCitrusPeels' sub-folder of Waste Valorization sample processes ("Examples\Waste Valorization"). This example focuses on the production of pectin from citrus peels. Pectin substances are complex mixtures of polysaccharide polymers found in most plants. Their concentration varies depending on the type of plant. Pectins behave like stabilizing gels and contribute to the adhesion between cells as well as the mechanical strength of cell walls. Commercially, pectin is typically extracted from either citrus fruit peels or form apple pomance. The example model is included under the "Waste Valorization" subfolder of "Examples".

  2. Mango Kernel Refinery.
    This example process can be found under the 'MangoKernelRefinery' sub-folder of  "Waste Valorization" collection of processes ("Examples\Waste Valorization").
    This simulates a biorefinery that utilizes mango kernels to produce energy and specialty bioproducts such as oil, proteins, fiber and starch. Mangos are on of the major agricultural commodities in tropical countries with India ranking first among the world's mango producing industries. The processing of mangos leads to generation of 25-40% (w/w) of the fruit as waste. Peels, the major byproduct of mango processing, contain valuable nutrients such as polyphenols, pectin, sugars and natural pigments. Mango kernels on the other hand, can be utilized for the extraction of lipids, starch and protein. This case study demonstrates a viable process for accomplishing that. Look for the subfolder named "MangoKernelRefinery.

H. Metallurgy

  1. Aluminum
    Aluminum is a commodity non-ferrous metal that is widely used in construction, transportation, packaging, consumer equipment, and machinery due to its lightness, high thermal and electrical conductivity, corrosion resistance, workability, and strength upon alloying.
    The process model of this example presents a flowsheet for the production of primary aluminum from bauxite ore based on the Bayer and Hall-Heroult processes. The Feed Preparation section of the flowsheet performs the comminution and desilication of the ore by grinding and alkaline leaching. In the Leaching And Precipitation section, aluminum is leached out of the ore and dissolved in the alkaline pregnant solution as aluminate. Within the same section, the dissolved aluminum is hydrolyzed and precipitated as aluminum hydroxide. Finally, in the Electro-reduction section, the precipitated hydroxide is first washed to remove the retained aluminate solution and then calcined to anhydrous alumina, melted and reduced to aluminum metal via electro-reduction on carbon anodes.
    This example process and extensive documentation can be found under the 'Aluminum' sub-folder of the "Metallurgy" sample processes ("Examples\Metallurgy").

  2. Battery Cathode Material
    This example process and extensive documentation can be found under the 'Battery Cathode Material' sub-folder of the "Metallurgy" sample processes ("Examples\Metallurgy").
    This process model focuses on the production of a key metal used in the cathode of Li-Ion batteries (LiBs). The cathode is made of a lithium transition metal oxide layered on aluminum foil whereas the anode consists of porous carbon graphite layered on copper. During charge, lithium ions flow from the cathode to the anode through an electrolyte. The amount of cathode material placed in the market is estimated at about 140,000 metric tons (MT). It is expected to approach 4,000,000 MT by the year 2025.

  3. Battery Recycling
    This example process and pertinent extensive documentation can be found under the 'Battery Recycling' sub-folder of  "Metallurgy" collection of processes ("Examples\Metallurgy").
    This process presents the steps in a typical recycling of Lithium-Ion batteries for portable electronics through a mixed physico-hydrometallurgical process. The plant represented here, processes around 11,000-12,000 MT/year. Two case studies are included. Case B, presents an improvement over the 'standard' process (case A) whereby two reaction steps have access to extra equipment operating in staggered mode in order to reduce the overall cycle time of the process.

  4. Cu Au Bioleaching
    This example process and pertinent extensive documentation can be found under the 'Cu Au Bioleaching' sub-folder of  "Metallurgy" collection of processes ("Examples\Metallurgy").
    This model captures a bio-hydrometallurgical process to extract and recover copper and gold from a Cu-Au refactory concentrate. The process utilizes bioleaching of the concentrate to dissolve the metal sulphides while leaving gold and solid residue. Copper is recovered from the bioleach pregnant solution by electrowinning, after purification by solvent extraction. Gold is extracted from the bioleach residue by thiosulfate-ammonia leaching and recovered from the pregnant leach solution also by electrowinning following purification by ion-exchange. The process presented in this example treats 328,000 MT/year of concentrate and produced 87,000 MT/year of copper and 4.7 MT/year of gold. The .spf for this process model as well as extensive documentation can be found in the "Cu Au Bioleaching" folder under the "Metallurgy" group in the 'Examples' folderwith a processing capacity of 4 MT/hr (corresponding to 31,680 MT.

  5. Cu Ni Matte Leaching
    This example process and pertinent extensive documentation can be found under the 'Cu Ni Matte Leaching' sub-folder of  "Metallurgy" collection of processes ("Examples\Metallurgy").
    This example presents a physico-hydrometallurgical process for the treatment of copper-nickel (Cu-Ni) matte. The term 'matte' refers to a mixture of metal sulfides formed during pyrometallurgical smelting. The process runs in continuous mode with a processing capacity of 4 MT/hr (corresponding to 31,680 MT/yr).

  6. Lithium Extraction
    This example process and pertinent extensive documentation can be found under the 'Lithium Extraction' sub-folder of  "Metallurgy" collection of processes ("Examples\Metallurgy").
    This example analyzes the production of battery grade Lithium Carbonate (Li2CO3) from spodumene ore. Spodumene is a pyroxene mineral consisting of lithium aluminum inosilicate. The production scheme shown here is based on information available in the patent and technical literature. A variation of this process has been commercialized by Talison Lithium in Australia and Sichuan Tianqi Lithium Industries in China.

  7. Rare Earth Elements
    This example process and pertinent extensive documentation can be found under the 'Rare Earth Elements' sub-folder of  "Metallurgy" collection of processes ("Examples\Metallurgy").
    There are 15 elements of the lanthanide grop (from lanthanum to lutetium) that are considered 'rare earths'. This example model of SuperPro Designer, presents a process designed to produce high-quality earthy oxides (REOs) and other marketable products from a fluorocorbonate ore resembling the Bayan Obo Fe-Nb-FEE deposit in inner Mongolia, China. The actual process is quite complex in its nature, so the steps included in this model, are only a simplified version. Instead of 170 actual minerals contained in the original ore, only 32 are considered in this example.

  8. Solar Panel Recycling
    This example process and pertinent extensive documentation can be found under the 'Solar Panel Recycling' sub-folder of  "Metallurgy" collection of processes ("Examples\Metallurgy").
    This example presents a physico-chemical process for recycling end-of-life PV panels. The process involves dry pretreatment, wet chemical treatment and hydrometallurgical processing. The dry pre-treatment includes the manual dismantling of the aluminum frames, comminution and sieving. The chemical treatment is based on the altercation of the ethylene acetate (EVA) used as encapsulating agent by means of cyclohexane, thus resulting in the separation of Tedlar, glass, metal contents and EVA sheets. Glass and metal particles are separated and recovered by air classification. The silver and silicon encapsulated within the EVA layers are recovered by hydrometallurgical operations upon thermal decomposition of EVA. The overall recovery is higher than 90%.

  9. Zircon Processing
    This example process and pertinent extensive documentation can be found under the 'Zircon Processing' sub-folder of  "Metallurgy" collection of processes ("Examples\Metallurgy").
    Zirconiumm (Zi) finds wide application in strategic fields such as the ceramic industry, enamels, refractory materials, glazes, foundry mold and abrasive grits. In 2011, about 1,200,000 MT of Zirconium were processed to generate zirconium products. This example of SuperPro, presents the extraction of zirconium from zircon sand containing ore.

I. Environmental

  1. Air Pollution Control
    This example process can be found under the "AirControl" sub-folder of sample Environmental processes ("Examples\Environmental").
    This design case models a sequence of three units for removing solid particles (Dust) and volatile organic compound (Acetone) from an air stream. All related files can be found under the "AirControl" folder.

  2. Food Industry Wastewater Treatment
    This example process and pertinent extensive documentation can be found under the "FoodIndWastewater" sub-folder of  "Environmental" collection of processes ("Examples\Environmental").
    This example presents a plant that treats food industry wastewater. Anaerobic digestion is utilized to reduce the environmental load and generate biogas, which is consumed on site to produce electricity. The output of the anaerobic digesters undergoes aerobic oxidation to further reduce the organic load.

  3. Wastewater Recycling
    This example process can be found under the "GE" sub-folder of sample Environmental processes ("Examples\Environmental").
    The process here deals with an effort to minimize wastewater and hazardous sludge generation at a manufacturing plant of General Electric. The related files can be found under the "GE" folder. It has been prepared based on publicly available information and may not fully reflect the actual plant (Shapiro et al., 1995). Two design cases are provided with this example. The first describes the wastewater treatment system at the beginning of 1993 ("orig_vXX") and a second ("modif_vXX") that describes the treatment plant after the recommended modifications for waste minimization.

  4. Incinerator
    This example process can be found under the "Incineration" sub-folder of sample Environmental processes ("Examples\Environmental").
    It can be found under the "Incineration" folder. It is a very simple design case modeling just a single incinerator unit that is used to burn sludge.

  5. Industrial Wastewater Treatment
    This example process can be found under the "IndWater" sub-folder of sample Environmental processes ("Examples\Environmental").
    This design case models a simplified version of an industrial wastewater treatment plant. The related files can be found under the "IndWater" subdirectory. This example demonstrates how to track the fate of multiple components (constituents) and calculate VOC emissions in a treatment plant.

  6. Municipal Wastewater Treatment (Modeling and Retrofit Studies)
    This example process can be found under the "MunWater" sub-folder of sample Environmental processes ("Examples\Environmental").
    This sample design case file focuses on the modeling and retrofit design of a municipal wastewater treatment plant. All related files can be found under the "MunWater" folder. It consists of three design cases: The first ("mwwt_vXXa ") represents a typical activated sludge plant without any process steps for nitrogen removal. The second design case file ("mwwt_vXXb") represents a modified Ludzack-Ettinger process for nitrogen removal. Finally, the third flowsheet ("mwwt_vXXc") represents a 4-stage Bardenpho process for nitrogen removal.

  7. Ultra-Purification of Water
    This example process can be found under the "UPWater" sub-folder of sample Environmental processes ("Examples\Environmental").
    It can be found under the "UPWater" folder. This is a simplified example of a water purification and wastewater treatment plant that is associated with a semiconductor manufacturing facility.

J. Miscellaneous

A series of simple (2-3 unit procedure) examples can be found under the Examples\Misc folder. There’s a "ReadMe" file in that directory that further explains the main purpose of each example case. Typically, each design case in that folder focuses on one issue: e.g. the file named "BKinF_vXX.spd" demonstrates all the kinetic terms used in describing a fermentation reaction (dynamically);it also demonstrates how to instruct SuperPro Designer to retain (record) information during simulation so that the dynamic profiles of selected component concentrations and temperature can later be displayed. Look for the file named "DynamicCharts_vXX.spf" that demonstrates how to engage MS-Excel to build into your model charts that will dynamically refresh after every simulation to show new results.
Other examples focus on other specialized operations in SuperPro (such as Batch Distillation, Rigorous Flash Calculations, Hydro-Cyclones, Fuel Cell simulation, Mixture Preparation, etc.)
A recent addition studies (using COM) the variability of the liquid output in a flash drum when a pressurized mixture of CO2 / Ethanol / Water is flashed at various conditions.

K. EPA-MACT Report

Starting with v10, SuperPro Designer now produces MACT compliant emission reports. There is a set of examples in this folder that demonstrate how to produce such reports and how to combine reports from several processes modelled by SuperPro Designer along with batch records about how many of each step were executed in a set period of time (e.g. a month or a year) and generate a combined EPA report for all in a single Excel spreadsheet.

L. COM Engine

SuperPro Designer can be utilized as a service engine (COM engine) from a COM-compliant programming environment (such as VBA scripting in Excel, or C# direct programming). Using COM calls users can load a design case file (.spf) and then set / get values for almost any of the simulation parameters allowing them to perform and record many 'what-if' studies and explore the sensitivity of a base case design with respect to key-input parameters (e.g. composition of a feed, price of a key ingredient, etc.).
Other potential use of the COM engine of SuperPro is in performing stochastic simulations (e.g. using "Crystal Ball" - an Excel-based add-on) to study the behavior of a base case design when some of its key input parameters vary with a given probabilistic distribution. There's a new good demonstration example added in "Misc" folder ("Flash_CO2_H20_EthOH.spf") that also takes advantage of SuperPro's COM engine to do sensitivity analysis on the CO2 concentration in a flash output.

 

 

How to Load and View a Sample Design Case

Start SuperPro Designer first; actual sequence depends on your version of Windows (Win 7, Win 8/8.1, Win 10); if you are unsure how to start an installed application, please consult your Windows documentation). Having started SuperPro, to open one of the existing design case files, go to the menu and pick the File/Open... option. From the file selection dialog presented to you, go to the 'Examples' folder. The "Examples" folder was created during installation under the "Process Library" folder in the chosen "Auxiliary Location";  The default location for the "Aux Folder" depends on your operating system.
Once you've located the "Examples" folder, then switch to any one of the subfolders (e.g. "Pharmaceuticals" or "Bio-Fuels", etc.).  Select a file with the '.spf' extension (for example, if you decided to choose the b-gal example design case, you should pick the bgal_v13a.spf file) and click on "Open".