What's New in SuperPro Designer v13

  1. General

  2. New Unit Procedures

  3. New Operations

  4. Improvements in Operations

  5. Bug Fixes

  6. New Examples

 

 

a. General

a01.

Expanded Contents of the Procedure Activity Overview Table.

a02.

User-Defined Cost Models Employed in a Process Model File Can Now Be Viewed and Edited Centrally.

a03.

Resource Demand Charts Can Now Switch Section-Focus from the Chart Interface.

a04.

Oxidation State Has Been Added as a Property to All Components in the Databank.

a05.

Searching by Keyword(s) to Locate a Record Becomes Easier.

a06.

Round-off of Estimated Purchase Costs Is Now Optional.

a07.

New Bitmap Indicator for Unit Procedures that Are Continuous in Batch Process.

a08.

Intelligent Re-Allocation of Input/Output Streams around a Procedure when a New Icon Configuration Is Selected.

a09.

Spent Agent Losses Are Now Better Accounted for as a Penalty on the Operating Cost of a Process.

a10.

Stream Descriptions Are Now Displayed on the Stream Summary Table (SST).

a11.

Several Additions to the COM Engine Functionality: Unit Procedure Properties.

a12.

Several Additions to the COM Engine Functionality: Stream Properties.

a13.

Several Additions to the COM Engine Functionality: Operation Properties.

a14.

Several Additions to the COM Engine Functionality: New Iterators.

a15. New Example Has Been Added: Electrolyzer.

 

a01. Expanded Contents of the Procedure Activity Overview Table.

SuperPro Designer displays two tables over a procedure icon:
- The Equipment Contents, and
- The Procedure Activity
The first is focusing on what is IN the contents of the hosting vessel and how those contents are changing after each operation by material entering/leaving/or being transformed from the action of each operation.
The Activity table, focuses on the traffic of material in and out of the procedure as well as (to some extent but not in as much detail) on what the contents are after every operation in that procedure. A typical Procedure Activity Table looks like this:

To show the table right-click over a procedure (must be hosted by equipment with holding capacity) and then select Procedure Activity Table etc. from that (the context) menu.

There used to be 3 sections (Charge/Discharge, Contents and Times); now we've added one more: Rates (highlighted in yellow above). This section shows the rates of streams coming in (or out) to the operation shown at the very left column. The rate is the amount divided by either the operation's process time (Actual Rate) or divided by the entire cycle time (Average Rate). 
More than that, we have made a few more properties of the contents (and the streams coming and out) to be displayed should the user decides they are of his/her interest (like COD, BOD, etc.). The dialog that displays all possible options for content in this table is shown below:

a02. User-Defined Cost Models Employed in a Process Model File Can Now Be Viewed and Edited Centrally.

User-Defined Cost Models are cost estimation models that the user can introduce to better predict the cost of a given type of equipment (e.g. "Blending Tanks") when the "size" of that equipment is known (e.g. "Volume"). Once SuperPro Designer's simulation engine estimates the required capacity for each equipment to perform the actions dictated by the process model, it will estimate the purchase cost (PC cost) for each equipment using our own (proprietary) correlations. However, since equipment features and specifications for each industry can vary quite a lot, it is possible that our built-in model may be inadequate. For such cases, SuperPro provides for users to declare their own power-based model and even keep it in their databank so that it can be used in multiple projects. All you had to do is visit the Purchase Cost tab of the Equipment dialog (see below how to assign a UDCM from the databank for a seed bioreactor)

After assigning such UDCMs to several equipment in your model it may be hard to track down where there used and worse than that, if you wanted to modify one or more parameters of that UDMC model as employed to his .spf model, you'd have to visit all places where it engaged to do so. Starting with this release, UDCM receive the same treatment as any other resource that is engaged similarly (e.g. "Heat Transfer Agents"). There's a central registry for all the UDCM models used in a process model where they can be accessed,modified and all the changes will automatically be propagated to where the model is engaged (without having to change the original copy in the databank). This central registry of UDCMs can be viewed by selecting Tasks/ Other Resources / User-Defined Cost Models... etc. from the main menu.  

From this interface you can edit each UDCM and/or commit it back to your databank ( ) or create a new record with a different name that keeps it with the modified values ( ). Finally, if you so choose, you can re-align the values of the UDCM as used here in this model (after it's been modified) back to the values as they exist in your databank. Finally clicking on the   button you can see where each UDCM model is used. 
It should be noted that UDCMs can be defined for main equipment types as well as for auxiliary equipment types (e.g. "CIP Skids", "Transfer Panels", etc.).

a03. Resource Demand Charts Can Now Switch Section-Focus from the Chart Interface.

When displaying a resource consumption chart (e.g. "Labor" or "Heat Transfer Agent") for one or multiple batches in a model that has multiple sections sometimes users may want to focus on the consumption in one (or some) sections alone (not the entire process). Even though you can choose the section when you request the chart to be created (see below)

One may want to change it while the chart is shown and without having to exit and re-create the chart. This is now possible by using the top-right dropdown section-selection control shown on all such charts (see below).


 

a04. Oxidation State (Valency) Has Been Added as a Property to All Components in the Databank.

Some of our latest unit operations (and possibly others that we may add in the future) can benefit by being aware of the valency (positive or negative) and value of a component registered in a process model. For that reason, a new field has been added to the description of all components kept by our SuperPro database:



Please be aware that not all values have been updated yet in our current list of almost 1,200 entries but will be soon.

a05. Searching by Keyword(s) to Locate a Record Becomes Easier.

One of the most common ways to try to locate from your process library a past record is by trying to match a keyword associated with that record. In previous releases you 'd have to scroll through the list of all keywords (and there can be a great number of them) to locate and select the one(s) you wish to search for.

This can be time consuming. Starting with this release we have equipped the selection of keywords with search buttons similar to what has been part of the component and/or mixture databank. For example, if you are trying to identify keywords related to 'refinery' you can type 'refinery' and see if there are any matches exact or partial in the entire list of keywords. When the search matches the one(s) you like, check it so that it will be part of the keyword search to identify the record(s) associated with those keywords.

a06. Round-off of Estimated Purchase Costs Is Now Optional.

When SuperPro Designer's economics calculator estimates the purchase cost (PC) of equipment, it rounds it up (or down) to the nearest thousand. So, $13,450 will show as $13,000 and $25,875 will show as $26,000. For users representing equipment in small pieces of equipment. For that reason, we have made the rounding off optional (see below the dialog from Reports / Options... Economic Evaluation tab). 

scale this may end up rounding out to $0.0 several

a07. New Bitmap Indicator for Unit Procedures that Are Continuous in Batch Process.

When a unit procedure is set to operate in a batch mode within a process that is continuous a 'clock-like' bitmap appears to remind the user that the specific procedure works with a clock (time) and not continuously. Similarly, if a unit procedure in a batch process is set to be running with its own clock (in other words cycles independently of the rest of unit procedures that start a new cycle with a time span equal to the recipe's cycle time) also we show a 'clock-like' symbol to remind the user the 'special' clock this unit procedure is engaging. 

When the reverse happens, i.e. we have a continuous procedure operating in an otherwise batch process, we didn't have an indicator. Starting with this release a new 'clock-like-but-xed' bitmap will be shown at the bottom left of such unit procedures. Of course showing all the status bitmaps is optional and can be turned on/off by visiting the Visual Style dialog for a specific unit procedure (or the default for all unit procedures). 

a08. Intelligen Re-Allocation of Input/Output Streams around a Procedure when a new Icon Configuration Is Selected.

The feature of having multiple i/o configurations for some unit procedures has been introduced now for a while in SuperPro. For example, a Diafiltration procedure could have any of the following three i/o configurations:


A simple right-click over the icon can transform one configuration to the other keeping all operations intact and all streams and their connections. Sometimes such transformations aren't possible if a stream is connected to a port that does not exist in the next configuration requested. For example, one may think that transforming the 9x9 above to the 5x5 the last output stream connected on out port #7 has no place to go (there are only 5 out ports in the 5x5 configuration). A new logic has now been applied to automatically shift a stream from one port to another provided it is available and it is allowed to receive the stream. So the transformation shown below is now allowed:


The 2nd criterion is a little tricky to implement. For instance, only the last output port is available as a possible re-allocation of the "LiqWaste 6" stream above. It would have been incorrect (logically) to move it anywhere else (say in the 6th spot if the 7x7 configuration was chosen to transform to).  

a09. Spent Agent Losses Are Now Better Accounted for as a Penalty on the Operating Cost of a Process.

When a heat transfer agent is defined, a cost is provided to be used as a multiplier to the amount of agent (in kg/batch) that has been calculated as the demand for a given process. However, this cost assumes that the agent is supplied at the set conditions (e.g. 242° C and vapor - saturated vapor) and it expected to be returned at 242° C as saturated liquid and in its entirety (i.e. the same amount checked out from the utility plant is supposed to be returned). In reality, a portion of the agent gets lost in the delivery and/or returned network and never finds its way back to utility plant. For this "lost" spent agent a process must incur an extra charge at a rate of the "spent agent" which now a new parameter that accompanies the definition of a new HX Agent in the databank (see highlighted area below).

Once this agent is registered in a process model, the same dialog viewed for the agent that has been engaged in a process (i.e. from the interface that shows when the user selects Tasks / Other Resources / Heat Transfer Agents ... ) it shows up with an extra variable: Agent Loss Amount (as a percentage %) (see below):


With these two new numbers we can penalize a process in a more accurate way for being 'sloppy' and not returning the entire agent properly. Of course all this extra detail is totally optional as the percentage wasted for all model is set to 0%. 

a10. Stream Descriptions Are Now Displayed on the Stream Summary Table (SST).

SuperPro Designer's provides for two identification strings for each stream:
(a) The stream's name (that is automatically composed by the program every time a new stream is created) and
(b) The stream's description (that is empty by default).
By default only the stream name is displayed on the stream's tag on the flowsheet but users can change that by modifying the stream's display style. The Stream Summary Table (SST) displays an aggregate table of information for a user-selectable set of stream attributes for a user-chosen set of streams. The SST is displayed on a separate toolbar but can also be exported to an Excel worksheet using the Link-to-Excel feature of SST. Starting with this release, users can optionally display the stream's description string (right under the stream's name). This would also allow the stream's description be part of the Excel table should such a link-to-excel be created by the user.

a11. Several Additions to the COM Engine Functionality: Unit Procedure Properties.

We have added the following new varID (at the unit procedure level) as part of Get/SetProcedureVarVal():

sectionName_VID set/get the operation production level at a given year of operation (for cash flow analysis)

 

a12. Several Additions to the COM Engine Functionality: Stream Properties.

When accessing properties of a stream (Get/SetStreamVarVal()) the following new additions have been made:

sourceProcedureName_VID set/get the currency setting when presenting any cost-related items in this model.
destinationProcedureName_VID set/get the exchange rate (with respect to the US$) of the process set currency (above)

 

a13. Several Additions to the COM Engine Functionality: Operation Properties.

For several operation types, new set of VIDs have been added to facilitate accessing of their properties (Get/SetOperVarVal())
More specifically in this release we have added the following new VIDs:

Shortcut,
Rigorous and
Batch Distillation

reboilerTemperature_VID

Get/Set the temperature of the reboiler
Continuous
Shortcut
Distillation
fractionInDistillate_VID Set/Get the fraction in distillate
Shortcut Distillation relativeVolatilityOption_VID Set/Get the relative volatility option (set-by-user vs calculated)
Shortcut Distillation relVolatilityUsed_VID set/get the relative volatility of a component as it will be assumed for the purposes of this operation.
Custom Mixing & Pull-in Operation outCompMolFrac_VID set/get the mole fraction of a preferred component after the custom mixing (or after the pull-in operation).

 

a14. Several Additions to the COM Engine Functionality: New Iterators.

Iterator API calls allow the script writer (or C# code) to inquire in an .spf about the list of entities with a specific designation. For example, since the start of the COM functionality we had COM iterators for all the Pure Components registered in a process model; or for all the unit procedures, etc. 

In this release we have added the following iterators:

To iterate over all streams that connect two sections (section-A-name & section-B-name):
StartEnumeration2 <pos, stream_LID, mainBranchSection_CID, section-A-name, section-B-name>
GetNextItemName2 <pos, streamName, stream_LID, mainBranchSection_CID, section-A-name, section-B-name> 

Iterate over all input/output streams entering/exiting a given section in a branch:
StartEnumeration2 <pos, in/outStream_LID, section_CID, branchName, sectionName>
GetNextItemName2 <pos, streamName, in/outStream_LID, section_CID, branchName, sectionName>

 

a15. New Example Has Been Added: Electrolyzer.

A new, simple one unit procedure example has been added to the Misc subfolder (under the "Examples" folder). It simply demonstrates how to use the Electrowinning unit procedure to simulate the production of hydrogen from electrolyzing water.

The process model's file is named "Electrolyzer_v13.spf" and there are several explanatory comments built into the file. 

 

 

b. New Unit Procedures

b01. Electrodialysis.

An Electrodialysis Procedure can be created by selecting the following menu option:
Unit Procedures > Filtration > Electrodialysis.


Electrodialysis refers to an electrolytic process for separating an aqueous, electrolyte feed into a concentrate and a diluate stream by using an electric field and ion-selective membranes. These membranes allow the selective migration of ions while retaining water molecules.


This the icon that represents an Electrodialysis procedure.

b02. Rotary Kiln.

The new procedure has been added under:
Unit Procedures > Continuous Reactions > Stoichiometric > in a Rotary Kiln


This unit procedure can be used to simulate a rotary cement kiln where a mixture of ground solids consisting primarily of limestone and clay is converted into cement clinker by heating the material to a very high temperature with hot gases flowing counter-currently. The hot gases are generated at the lower end of the kiln by burning fuel and air.


The icon of a rotary kiln procedure is shown above.
A new Rotary Kiln equipment type has been added to host the above procedure. This equipment type can be used to simulate a rotary cement kiln that produces cement clinker. The rotary kiln is a slightly inclined cylindrical vessel that rotates slowly about its longitudinal axis. As the kiln rotates, the process feedstock moves slowly from the upper end of the kiln towards the lower end. As it moves, it is heated by hot gases flowing counter-currently to a very high temperature, which causes the formation of cement clinker

 

c. New Unit Operations

c01. Electrodialysis.

An new operation has been created as the main operation in an electrodialysis procedure. Electrodialysis refers to an electrolytic process for separating an aqueous, electrolyte feed into a concentrate and a diluate stream by using an electric field and ion-selective membranes. These membranes allow the selective migration of ions while retaining water molecules.


The main (Oper.Cond's) tab of this operation is shown above.

c02. Continuous Stoichiometric Reaction in a Rotary Kiln.

A new Rotary Kiln operation has been added to simulate a rotary kiln where the process feedstock is heated by hot gases to a very high temperature which causes the material to decompose. For example, it can be used to simulate the conversion of ground inorganic solids mixture of limestone and clay into cement clinker in a rotary cement kiln. In the rotary cement kiln, a mixture consisting primarily of limestone and clay is fed into the upper end of the kiln. As the kiln rotates, the material moves towards the lower end and it is raised to a very high temperature by hot gases flowing counter-currently. These are generated at the lower end by burning fuel and air.  The material finally is sintered into clinker.


The (Oper.Cond's) tab of this operation is shown above.

Here are the next three important tabs that describe this operation:

The Fuel tab:

 

The Component Identification tab:

and 

The Reactions tab:

Through the operation’s data dialog, the user may specify the composition and lower heating value of one or more fuel components as well as the registered pure components that are associated with combustion reaction participants such as oxygen, water and carbon dioxide. Also, the user may specify either the percent excess oxygen or the air/fuel ratio. Based on these, the program will calculate the flow of inlet air and the flow, composition and temperature of the hot gases produced by combustion of the fuel and air streams. 
In addition, the user may specify the reactions of that may occur in kiln, the solids entrainment into the exhaust gas, the temperature of the final product and the overall heat losses. Based on these, the program will calculate the flow and composition of the product stream and the flow, composition and temperature of the exhaust gases.
Also, in design mode, the user may specify the specific volumetric loading, which will be used to size the equipment and calculate the required number of units for the operation considered.

 

d. Improvements in Operations

d01.

Pull-in Operation: Amount Pulled in Could Be Set as a Multiple of Initial Contents or the Amount on Any Other Input Stream.

d02.

Spray Drying, Fluid Bed Drying Operations: Several Enhancements.

d03.

Gas Cycloning and Baghouse Filtration Operations: Several Improvements.

d04.

Physical Units Options for the Whole Process (Defaults) Interface Has Been Revamped.

d05.

Column Elution Operation Improved.

d06.

Diafiltration and Batch Concentration Operation: Concentrate Removal Options as well as Filter Contents vs Draw-and-Filter Option.

d07.

More Accurate Interpretation of the Flag "Assume No Phase Change" in Kinetic Reactions and Fermentations.

d08.

Distillation Column Purchase Cost Estimation Improved.

d09.

Decanter and Mixer-Settler Extractor Equipment Cost Estimation Improved.

d10.

CSTR & Blending Tank Cost Estimations Improved.

d11.

Improved Energy Balances in Several Operations Where a Reaction Operation Is Included.

d12.

Neutralization and Wet-Air Oxidation: Several Improvements.

d13.

CIP and SIP Operations Will Inject Air if they Inherit sub-Atmospheric Pressure.

d14.

Diafiltration Procedure Now Allows for Multiple Diafiltration (and/or Concentration) Operations using either the Same or Different Diluant Streams.

d15.

Heat Sterilization and Pasteurization Assume 'No Phase Change'.

d16.

Rigorous & Shortcut Distillation Operations Now Size the Condenser and the Reboiler. 

 

 

d01. Pull-in Operation: Amount Pulled in Could Be Set as a Multiple of Initial Contents or the Amount on Any Other Input Stream.

A new option has been added to use as reference when requested an amount to be "pulled-in": the amount of material on another input stream to the procedure (see below).


 

d02. Spray Drying, Fluid Bed Drying Operations: Several Enhancements.

These operations now have a checkbox as to whether you want to use only one action (main) where you dry-heat or dry-cool the main feed or whether you want to first heat and dry then cool down the product. If heating is on, you may choose to check the option to preheat the inlet gas using a heating agent (so the heating agent is no longer used to heat the solution and the inlet gas), and you may also choose to perform liquid phase reactions adiabatically on the dried solution. If cooling is on, the user must add a Cooling Gas In stream and a Cooling Gas Out stream. If only one action (either cooling or drying) is set, then the "Primary Gas in" and "Primary Gas out" ports must be hooked onto streams. If 

In addition, these operations now offer two options to do sizing: you may now do sizing either based on total evaporation rate (default) or based on feed mass flow rate. If the latter option is chosen the specified total evaporation can be zero. This can be useful if you want to simulate cooling in a dryer without specifying any evaporation because the evaporation that occurs is not significant. Also, when cooling is performed after heating, then again it is possible to specify zero evaporation for cooling. 
Here's the "Oper.Conds" tab of the new Spray Drying Operation:

You can now also specify a solids entrainment fraction which is defined as the fraction of the dried solution that is entrained into the gas stream. Here's the tab for the main drying:

... and here's the tab or the secondary drying (cool down always):

If you open a file that was saved in v12 or earlier and that file contains a Rotary Drying operation or a Spray Drying operation or a Fluid Bed Drying operation, a "Model has changed in this version…" warning message is now displayed if the heating option is checked because the meaning of the heating option has changed in this release (the heating agent is now used only to preheat the gas; it is not used to heat the gas and the solids). In this case, you must re-initialize that operation (i.e., you must visit the operation’s data dialog, check the input data, and click OK). To make the transition from older versions to v13 as smooth as possible, SuperPro will try to determine whether this operation is expected to do heating or cooling or both, and it will try to initialize the input data automatically in the most meaningful manner, so that this op is ready to be solved with as little effort as possible from the user. 

In most cases, all you have to do to re-initialize such an operation is simply open and close the operation’s data dialog. If a a few cases where the data indicates that cooling takes place after heating, you will also have to manually add i/o streams for the cooling gas and initialize them. In any case, the warning message displayed includes all the information you need to complete the re-initialization.

d03. Gas Cycloning and Baghouse Filtration Operations: Several Improvements.

In the Gas Cycloning operation and in the Baghouse Filtration operation, a pure component’s particle removal % is now defined as the percentage of the liquid/solid flow (and not of the total flow) of that pure component that is removed.
In the Gas Cycloning operation and in the Baghouse Filtration operation, the component vapor fractions of the two outlet streams are no longer calculated based on the procedure’s Default PS Toolbox. The component vapor fractions of the top outlet stream are calculated by changing the component vapor fractions of the inlet stream in order to account for the removal of liquid/solid pure components to the bottom outlet stream. The bottom outlet stream is automatically set to be all liquid/solid.

Finally, in these two operations the component vapor fractions of the two outlet streams are no longer calculated based on the procedure’s Default PS Toolbox. The component vapor fractions of the top outlet stream are calculated by changing the component vapor fractions of the inlet stream in order to account for the removal of liquid/solid pure components to the bottom outlet stream. 

d04. Physical Units Options for the Whole Process (Defaults) Interface Has Been Revamped.

From this interface you can choose the default units chosen for several quantities that appear everywhere in a process model (time, mass flows, volume etc.). It appears when you select from the document's right-click (context) menu the Physical Units Options... choice. The following dialog appears:

Units have been organized into 6 distinct groups (Common, Operations/Equipment, Streams, Agents, Time, Numerical).
Two more settings have been exposed to the user to adjust (if necessary):
a) The "zero mass" and "zero flow" threshold 
b) The "min heat exchange temperature approach"

d05. Column Elution Operation Improved.

 Users now the option to define the total volume as well as how much volume goes to the collection stream in absolute terms (see below).

d06. Diafiltration and Batch Concentration Operation: Concentrate Removal Options as well as Filter Contents vs Draw-and-Filter Option.

When specifying the Diafiltration operation (or the Batch Concentration) the user can choose between:
a) first charge or transfer in the material to be filtered (in a timely manner) and then filter or
b) Draw-and-filter simultaneously; in that mode the entire material does NOT have to fit in the holding tank. 

Also, the user can choose between having the retentate automatically removed or just kept in so that maybe another concentration step can be applied or removed later at an appropriate time. 

d07. More Accurate Interpretation of the Flag "Assume No Phase Change" in Kinetic Reactions and Fermentations.

Users now have the option to do energy balance assuming that no phase change takes in all kinetic reaction and fermentation models regardless if the reaction happens in the liquid or the vapor phase (previously only available in a limited scope). 

Essentially, this flag will give the solver permission to use Cp*(Tout-Tin) for enthalpy changes instead of using enthalpy values, making the solution a lot easier (and faster). Note that this option will ONLY APPEAR if we are searching for the temperature so the thermal mode is NOT isothermal. 

d08. Distillation Column Purchase Cost Estimation Improved.

 the correlation used to estimate the cost of equipment behind a shortcut or a rigorous (continuous) distillation column has been improved to include better estimates for the column itself, the reboiler and the condenser.

d09. Decanter and Mixer-Settler Extractor Equipment Cost Estimation Improved.

New correlations have been empolyed for better estimation of purchase costs for some extraction units (namely the decanter and the mixer-settler).

d10. CSTR & Blending Tank Costs Improved.

The cost of CSTR can vary a lot; the same can be told for blending tanks. The previous estimation for the purcahse cost of such equipment was constantly under-estimating the actual cost. A better correlation is now used that does miss as much or as often.

d11. Improved Energy Balances in Several Operations Where a Reaction Operation Is Included.

Several operations such as Shredding, Absorption, Stripping, allow you to simulate (in an integrated manner) a reaction operation along with the main operation. In those cases previously the heat of the reaction was not taken properly into account. This is now done properly.

d12. Neutralization and Wet-Air Oxidation: Several Improvements.

In these operations that involve reactions, a reactant or product cannot be present in the neutralizing agent or air streams (respectively) that have their flowrates adjusted by the program.
Removed the option Agent Excess Set by User. Now the user should always specify an agent and an excess percentage.
Improved the calculations for the amount of agent required.

d13. CIP and SIP Operations Will Inject Air if they Inherit sub-Atmospheric Pressure.

CIP and SIP operations will now bring air in the vessel if the pressure of the contents is lower than atmospheric; they will also generate a warning if it is higher than atmospheric (and set it equal to atmospheric).

d14. Diafiltration Procedure Now Allows for Multiple Diafiltration and/or Concentration Operations using the Same or Different Diluant Streams.

Diafiltration procedure supports multiple i/o configurations. Besides the default 5x5 configuration, it also allows for 7x7 and 9x9 configurations. Given the added flexibility of charging/transfering in material from several sources, the procedure now supports even the presence of more than one 'Diafiltration' operations. Notice that in the higher i/o configurations multiple diluant inputs are available so you can select a different line for the diluant for each of the diafiltration steps.

Of course, you can also use the multi-diafiltration step option even with the default i/o configuration and simply use the same line for diluant in both diafiltration steps. This added flexibility along with the new, intelligent stream re-allocation feature (see a08. Intelligent Re-Allocation of Input/Output Streams around a Procedure when a New Icon Configuration Is Selected) make the diafiltration procedure a very flexible and powerful step in one's arsenal to create a process model.

d15. Heat Sterilization and Pasteurization Assume 'No Phase Change'.

Previously when users requested to have the pasteurization of a stream at temperatures above 100° C, SuperPro's simulation engine using the default Physical State Toolbox (PSTBX) would have to assume that those components ('Water' or 'Milk' etc) were in vapor phase since the temperature is above the Normal Boiling Point. However in most cases, the heating is done under pressure that keeps all such substances in the liquid phase. The solution was to alter the PSTBX for that procedure to use a pressure-sensitive criterion for when a component is in vapor phase (Antoine). Since for most users this resolution would have been challenging, we have now added a new check-box on the operation's i/o simulation dialog that gives SPD's engine permission to make that assumption for them (see below).  

Essentially this flag when checked allows the estimation of the heating duty to be done using the heat capacity of the mixture (at the inlet conditions) times the temperature change from input condition (or the exit of the regenerator if there's one assumed) to the pasteurization temperature. This would lead to more realistic duties than before (where the products were assumed in vapor state). Note that when this option is checked (default) the option to modify the unit procedure's PSTBX is not shown (not relevant). 

d16. Rigorous & Shortcut Distillation Operations Now Size the Reboiler and the Condenser.

The rigorous and shortcut distillation have now been equipped with two extra parameters that allow the operations to size the reboiler and condenser necessary to carry out the required (calculated) load correspondinly:
- Heat Transfer Coefficient (in Watt/m2-K or something equivalent) for the condenser, and
- Heat Transfer Coefficient (in Watt/m2-K or something equivalent) for the reboiler.

Using these variables and the calculated values for the loads in the condenser and the reboiler the program can estimate the required areas for these two key pieces of equipment that supplement the main column and therefore better estimates can be arrived for the equipment cost (which has three components: cost of the column itself plus the cost of the reboiler and the cost of the condenser). The calcuated areas are reported on the equipment dialog (see below).

 

e. Bug Fixes

e01.

Attempting to View the Composition of a Stock Mixture Directly in Pure Components May Crash the Program.

e02.

When Attempting to Exit the Dialog of Environmental Reactions a Bogus Message Would Prevent from Exiting.

e03.

Some Formatting Options of the Stream Summary Table Did not Work.

e04.

Mass Balance Calculations for Centrifugal Extraction May Be Incorrect (if Bottom Output Is Specified).

e05.

Exporting the Stream Summary Table to Excel Could Leave Some Content Behind.

e06.

Centrifugation Operation May Lead to a Crash When Reporting an Error Message.

e07.

Advertising/Selling Expenses and Running Royalty Expenses May not Be Properly Used (when defined on a per MP basis).

e08.

When Depositing a CIP Template (or Any Ingredient-Dependent Resource) Sometimes the Dependent Resources Failed to Auto-Deposit.

e09.

When Replacing a Fanning Procedure with a Compressing Procedure a Crash May Occur.

e10.

Decanter Cost Estimates Were off.

e11.

Annual Cost of Consumables Was (At Times) Miscalculated.

e12.

Copy-and-Paste a PBA Chromatography Column Procedure with a Flow-Through Operation Could Lead to a Crash during Solve M&E Balances.

e13.

Equipment Contents Set to Initialize with Final Contents from Previous Run Did not Work Properly.

e14.

Feasibility Check of User-Provided Temperatures for the Top and Bottom Outlet Temperatures in Absorption and Stripping.

e15.

Batch Heating Operations: Power Efficiency Is now Separate from Heating Efficiency.

e16.

Vent/Emissions Interface Glitch.

e17.

Transfer In / Out Operations: Emissions Tab: Condenser Options Would Not Show.

e18.

Pasteurization Operation: Operating Pressure Incorrect.

e19.

Volumetric Flows of Streams at STP Was Incorrect.

 

 

e01. Attempting to View the Composition of a Stock Mixture Directly in Pure Components May Crash the Program.

When attempting to click on the button next to the "Mole % vs Mass %" options that is supposed to bring up a new table to display the composition of the stock mixture directly in pure components the program crashes. This was a glitch introduced accidentally in a previous v13 release and has been fixed now with this release.

e02. When Attempting to Exit the Dialog of Environmental Reactions a Bogus Message Would Prevent from Exiting.

If we visit the Vent/Emissions tab of any of the environmental reaction operations' dialog, and simply attempt to click on another tab or attempt to exit the dialog, an error message reporting that the selected emission stream is inappropriate would prevent us from doing so. The error message clearly is inappropriate since the vent is off (by default). This bug was created with a previous release of v13 and has now been fixed.

e03. Some Formatting Options of the Stream Summary Table Did not Work.

contents of the stream summary table are highly customizable both in terms of contents (which stream attributes to include in the rows of the grid) as well as in appearance (text color, number precision, background color, etc.) for the values in the grid. Some options didn't work as expected. This has now been fixed.

e04. Mass Balance Calculations for Centrifugal Extraction May Be Incorrect (if Bottom Output Is Specified).

When users opted to set the split percentages for the bottom stream (as opposed to K-values) in a continuous or centrifugal extraction operation, the program inadvertently would interpret those split percentages for the top stream and therefore the mass balances would be incorrect. This has now been fixed.

e05. Exporting the Stream Summary Table to Excel Could Leave Some Content Behind.

When two successive exports of the stream summary table to an excel file were carried out, if the second export included fewer columns (or rows) the previous content was not erased. This has now been fixed.

e06. Centrifugation Operation May Lead to a Crash When Reporting an Error Message.

When the simulation run included a centrifugation operation and the running conditions lead to the reporting of an error message, due to glitch in the composition of the error string, a crash may result. This has now been fixed.

e07. Advertising/Selling Expenses and Running Royalty Expenses May not Be Properly Used (when defined on a per MP basis).

When specifying running royalties for a process (or the advertising sales) a per main product reference rate (on the dialog shown below)



if the main product rate was set to be at a mass unit other than kg, any change in the units of the rate reference rate would not be reflected properly in the values for the ad or royalty expenses. This has now been fixed.

e08. Specifying the Purchase Price of a Stock Mixture (from the Process Explorer) Does not Get Properly Converted.

If you double-click on a Stock Mixture (SM) entry as shown in the process explorer toolbar, then visited the "Economics" tab and attempted to set the price of that material in $ per something other than kg, after exiting the dialog the price would not be saved in the proper units, so when displayed it would be of incorrect value. Note that this issue does not appear if the price is edited starting from the stock mixture registration dialog. This has now been fixed.

e09. Grinding and Shredding Operation: Throughput Values Did not Convert Properly (for Some Unit Selection).

When selecting throughput units other than kg/h on the shredding or grinding operation, the value of throughput was not appropriately converted. This has now been fixed.

e10. Process Library's Search Matches Sometimes Appeared Multiple Times.

The Process Library allows the user to search to locate process files that meet a given set of criteria then, expand the list of results, with the set of process models that meet another set of criteria. For example, in the screen shown below a search on process models with the keyword 'Energy Integration' was performed. Now we want to expand the search to include any further process models with the keyword 'Energy Recovery'. After the new criteria are selected, we can click on "Expand Search". This will add to the list any process model files that include the keyword 'Energy Recovery'.



Due to a glitch, if a process model was found that had the new criterion (in this case keyword 'Energy Recovery' but was already listed in the result set, the process file as re-introduced a second time. This has now been fixed.

e11. Energy Recovery's Interface: Left-over load after a List of Matches Is Established Was Sometimes Inaccurate.

The Energy Recovery interface allows users to match streams that are currently being cooled down by utilities to be used instead as 'heat donors' to other locations of the process were heat is needed and currently the heating is being accomplished by steam (or other similar heating agents). Since a single heat donor could have a load that can be matched with several recipients (provided the temperatures are favorable) SuperPro Designer's interface would calculate the leftover load and new supply temperature from such heat donors after one or more matches. In some rare circumstances, the leftover load was incorrectly calculated. This has now been fixed.

e12. Copy-and-Paste a PBA Chromatography Column Procedure with a Flow-Through Operation Could Lead to a Crash during Solve M&E Balances.

When copying a unit procedure of type "PBA Chromatography Column" that contains a "PBA Column Flow-Through" operation and then pasting into the same (or a different) model, the clone operation would not be properly initialized and as a result when solving the new model it would lead to a crash. This has now been fixed.

e13. Equipment Contents Set to Initialize with Final Contents from Previous Run Did not Work Properly.

Users can request the initial contents of a vessel, instead of being initialized with the default agent ("Air"), to have either some user-specified contents, or the contents of another equipment in this or another model file or simply the final contents of that equipment form the previous run. If the user had copied-and-pasted an equipment with such a non-default content initialization, and due to a glitch in the code, the initial contents of the equipment weren't properly set. This has now been fixed and when an equipment (or input stream) set to initialize its contents in a special way is copied the auto-initialization strategy is reset to default.

e14. Feasibility Check of User-Provided Temperatures for the Top and Bottom Outlet Temperatures in Absorption and Stripping.

Users have the option to provide an outlet temperature for one of the two outlet streams in a stripping/absorption operation. If the provided temperature was unachievable the calculations were lead to infeasible solutions. When this is detected, a warning is generated.

e15. Batch Heating Operations: Power Efficiency Is now Separate from Heating Efficiency.

Previously (by accident) the two efficiencies were combined into one variable (used for both) which - of course - was a mistake; it has been now fixed.

e16. Vent/Emissions Interface Glitch.

When a rigorous model was selected for the main modeling of an operation with emissions, and then the user switched back to shortcut, all components that participated in the VLE calculations were checked as emitted; it has been now fixed.

e17. Transfer In / Out Operations: Emissions Tab: Condenser Options Would Not Show.

Previously (by accident) the condenser controls would not show; it has been now fixed.

e18. Pasteurization Operation: Operating Pressure Incorrect.

The user-set operating pressure was not considered in the energy balances (instead always atmospheric was used); this has been now fixed.

e19. Volumetric Flows of Streams at STP Was Incorrect.

When requesting to see the volumetric flowrate of a stream at STP conditions the value displayed was incorrect; it has been now fixed.

 

f. New Examples

f01. Pharmaceuticals Group: Blood Plasma Fractionation
f02. Bio-Materials Group: Micro-Algal Refinery
f03. Inorganic Chemicals Group: Cement Manufacturing
f04. Metallurgy Group: PCB Recycling
f05. Inorganics Group: Boric Acid Production
f06. Bio-Materials Group: Bio-Polymer Production
f07. Bio-Materials Group: Lactic Acid Production
f08. Pharmaceuticals Group: Streptomycin
f09. Pharmaceuticals Group: Viral Vaccine Production
f10. Pharmaceutical Group: mRNA Vaccine Production
f11. Pharmaceuticals Group: pDNA Production
f12. Pharmaceuticals Group: Omega-3 Oils
f13. Bio-Materials Group: Bio-Aromatics
f14. Bio-Materials Group: Probiotics
f15. Metallurgy Group: Aluminum Production
f16. Pharmaceuticals Group: Hyaluronic Acid
f17. Food Processing Group: Ice Cream Production

 

Please note that new examples are being added with each build release (or even minor release).

For more information and to find out the latest example processes included with the software please check the latest 'ReadMe' file of your release.

 

f01. Pharmaceuticals Group: Blood Plasma Fractionation.

Plasma is defined as the liquid fraction of blood, that is, blood without red cells, white cells, and platelets. It makes up approximately 55% of blood volume and contains numerous proteins that exert important physiological functions such as albumin, clotting factors, globulins, and hormones [1]. Many of these proteins can be separated, purified, and utilized as therapeutic agents to treat a variety of health conditions. The process of separating and purifying blood plasma components is referred to as plasma fractionation.
Two SuperPro Designer files are included in this example:
•    Plasma_Albumin.spf
•    Plasma_IgG.spf
For more details about the two processes, and to locate the .spf files for the two models please consult the Blood Plasma Fractionation folder in the Pharmaceuticals subfolder of the Examples folder.

f02. Bio-Materials Group: Micro-Algal Biorefinery.

Microalgae are a promising feedstock as a source of biofuels, proteins and bioactive compounds that can help address the problem of the growing demand for renewable sources in response to the increasing world population and the need for sustainable energy and food sources. There is an economic need to convert microalgal facilities into multiproduct A conceptual micro-algal biorefinery process was modeled and economically evaluated using SuperPro Designer to estimate the expected material requirements, process equipment, utilities consumption and ultimately production costs.
The process model file and a detailed description about the process model can be found in the Bio-Materials subfolder of the Examples folder.

f03. Inorganic Chemicals Group: Cement Manufacturing.

Cement is an inorganic, non-metallic binding material that, upon contact with water, sets, hardens and binds together other surrounding materials [1]. It is therefore the most used building material worldwide, with a current production of about 10 billion metric tons (MT) per year [2]. Although the exact composition of cement defines the specific material, the typical components in cement are limestone, clay and sand.
This example simulates a cement manufacturing process plant in which cement clinker is first produced by mixing clay and limestone, and then clinker is mixed with gypsum to produce cement.
The plant operates continuously for 330 days per year and it processes 260 MT/h of limestone, 65 MT/h of clay and 12.5 MT/h of gypsum to produce 218 MT/h (corresponding to 1.73 million MT/year) of cement.
The process model file and a detailed description about the process model can be found in the Inorganic Chemicals subfolder of the Examples folder.

f04. Metallurgy Group: PCB Recycling.

To-be-done.

The process model file and a detailed description about the process model can be found in the Pharmaceuticals subfolder of the Examples folder.

f05. Inorganic Materials Group: Boric Acid Production.

This example presents the production of Boric Acid from Colemanite concentrate. This model is based on the original work of prof. Mehmet Gunen and his collaborators at Suleiman Demirel University (2021).
Boric acid is a fundamental boronic compound produced from various boron-based minerals (e.g., colemanite, tincal and ulexite) or naturally occurring boron brines. It is a white, odorless powder that exhibits a monoclinic crystalline structure and has good solubility in water and other polar solvents. It is generally used as a starting material for the production of many boron-based chemicals such as borate esters, synthetic organic borate salts, boron carbine, boron trihalides and fluoroborates, which are used in high-tech applications such as heat and scratch-resistant glasses for smartphones, computers and TVs.
The process runs in continuous mode with a processing capacity of 15 metric tons (MT) of colemanite concentrate per hour, corresponding to 123,000 MT/year. This results in 10.76 MT/h (88,192  MT/year) of boric acid (H3BO3), which is the only product generated in the process.
The process model file and a detailed description about the process model can be found in the Inorganic Materials subfolder of the Examples folder.

f06. Bio-Materials Group: Bio-Polymer Production.

This example analyzes the production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs), which are biodegradable bioplastics that have the potential to replace traditional plastics in various packaging applications, disposable goods, electronic accessories, etc. The bioconversion process utilizes bacteria Cupriavidus necator in 300 m3 fermentors, operating in fed-batch mode, using soybean oil as the main carbon source. After fermentation, the intracellular PHA granules are released by cell disruption and purified with a surfactant / enzyme treatment. The plant analyzed in this example produces 8,300 metric tons of PHAs per year.
For more details, please review the complete documentation on this example as well as the SuperPro model capturing the entire production in the files that can be found in the "BioPolymer" subfloder of the "Examples\Bio-Materials" group.

f07. Bio-Materials Group: Lactic Acid Production.

This example analyzes a lactic acid production process from corn stover. Lactic acid is the simplest organic acid that has an asymmetric carbon atom and as such it is present in two optically active forms; the L(+) and the D(-) lactic acid. Only the L(+) isomer is found in the metabolism of humans and other mammals, although both enantiomers are found in the metabolism of different bacterial strains.
Lactic acid is produced on industrial scale. Its main applications are in the food, chemical, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Lactic acid is the main feedstock to produce PLA, a biodegradable plastic. The production of PLA is the largest lactic acid application, with a share of 28%. Lactic acid as a food ingredient has multiple use such as enhancing flavor, increasing shelf life, and controlling the development of pathogenic microorganisms. It is a significant ingredient in canned vegetables, yogurt, and butter. It is a preservative and acidulant in pickled vegetables and olives. Moreover, it is a natural solvent used for metal cleaning and other mechanical cleaning applications. In the pharmaceutical industry it has increasing application in drug manufacturing and as an electrolyte in intravenous solutions. Finally, in the personal care category it is used in skin care products and moisturizers.
The model for the production of lactic acid can be found under the "Lactic Acid" subfolder in the "Examples\Bio-Materials" group.

f08. Pharmaceuticals Group: Streptomycin Production.

Penicillin's success in fighting bacterial infections motivated many scientists and researchers to look for additional antibiotics. One such endeavor in the fall of 1943 by a scientist named Albert Schatz under the supervision of Dr. Selman A Waksman of Rutgers University led to the discovery and isolation of streptomycin. Waksman and his students have also been credited with discovering numerous other antibiotics such as actinomycin, neomycin, clavacin, etc.
Streptomycin produced by Streptomyces griseus (S. griseus) is a broad-spectrum antibiotic that is highly effective against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive organisms. Streptomycin has been found to be very useful in treating infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which are particularly resistant to penicillin. It is also useful in combating plant diseases caused by bacteria because it acts systemically in plants. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), streptomycin is the safest drug used to treat tuberculosis. Streptomycin has been added to the WHO's list of essential medicines for public healthcare.
The worldwide streptomycin market is projected to reach $600 million by 2025 and grow at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 0.7% in the forecast period between 2020 and 2025.
The process model depicting the production of streptomycin (along with more detailed documentation) can be found in the "Streptomycin" subfloder of the "Examples\Pharmaceuticals" group.

f09. Pharmaceuticals Group: Viral Vaccine Production.

Vaccines are considered the most effective way to prevent infectious diseases [1], saving millions of lives every year [2]. In the case of viral diseases, vaccines are even more crucial given that many of them cannot be cured by antiviral drugs. Examples of viral vaccines include those that immunize against influenza, hepatitis A & B, poliomyelitis, measles, rubella, chickenpox, mumps, and, more recently, COVID-19.
The manufacturing processes of the various types of whole virus vaccines (here including live attenuated, inactivated whole virus, and viral vector vaccines) have many similarities among each other given that they all involve the inoculation, replication, recovery, and purification of entire viral particles (VPs). VPs are usually produced in one of three manners: (1) hen eggs; (2) adherent cell culture; or (3) suspension cell culture. Virus production in hen eggs is a traditional process dating back to 1931 still widely employed today, especially for influenza vaccines. However, it has several drawbacks (mainly it is labor-intensive and time-consuming); also, manufacturing in eggs is vulnerable to avian disease outbreaks, which could wipe out the supply of eggs and thus jeopardize vaccine production. In addition, the supply of eggs might be insufficient for vaccine production in the case of a pandemic. For all these reasons, vaccine manufacturing has been moving away from eggs to cell culture-based processes..
Two such models are included in the the "Viral Vaccine" subfolder in the "Examples\Pharmaceuticals" group. One somewhat simplified and another in more detail. A comprehensive "ReadMe" file is also included in the same folder.

f10. Pharmaceuticals Group: mRNA Vaccine Production.

The production of messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccines such as those developed against COVID-19 by Moderna and Pfizer / BioNTech. mRNA is synthesized in a cell-free (enzymatic) reaction (in vitro transcription), which is carried out in a rocking bioreactor. The product is purified by ultrafiltration / diafiltration, affinity (oligo-dT) chromatography, and hydrophobic interaction chromatography. The purified mRNA is encapsulated within lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) using microfluidic mixers and formulated with an adequate buffer. This example is recommended to users interested in biopharmaceutical and enzymatic (cell-free) processes.
There are two variations of the production model: one simplified and one detailed. Both models (.spf files) and extended documentations can be found in the "mRNA Vaccines" folder under the "Examples\Pharmaceuticals" group.

f11. Pharmaceuticals Group: pDNA Production.

The subject of this pair of process models is the production of pharmaceutical grade plasmid DNA (pDNA). Plasmids are circular DNA molecules that find applications in gene therapy, vaccines, and molecular biology research. In this example, pDNA is produced in bacteria Escherichia coli by fed-batch fermentation. The cells are disrupted by alkaline lysis to release the pDNA. Most contaminants are subsequently removed by selective precipitation. Finally, pDNA is purified by ultrafiltration / diafiltration, anion-exchange chromatography and hydrophobic interaction chromatography. This example is recommended to users interested in the production of biopharmaceuticals and highly viscous biomolecules.
There are two variations of the production model: one simplified and one detailed. Both models (.spf files) and extended documentations can be found in the "pDNA" folder under the "Examples\Pharmaceuticals" collection of example processes.

f12. Pharmaceuticals Group: Omega-3 Oils.

This example presents an industrial unit for the production of Omega-3 oils. Omega-3 oils are polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) that have been shown to support improved brain health and reduced risk for heart disease.  The manufacturing plant analyzed in this example utilizes microalgae fermentation and produces around 380 kg/h of purified omega-3 oils. Case A (this model) utilizes hexane for product extraction. Case B utilizes supercritical CO2 for production extraction.
The process model file and a detailed description about the process model can be found in the Pharmaceuticals subfolder of the Examples folder.

f13. Bio-Materials Group: Bio-Aromatics.

This example presents the production of Bio-Aromatics via fermentation. More specifically, it is a case study on the production of p-Hydroxybenzoic Acid (pHBA) using a strain of Corynebacterium Glutamicum. The plant engages production fermentors operating in staggered mode, each having a working volume of 257 m3 (approx. 68,000 gal). It generates 23 metric tons (MT)of pHBA per batch, resulting in an annual throughput of 30,000 MT.
The process model file and a detailed description about the process model can be found in the Bio-Materials subfolder of the Examples folder.

f14. Bio-Materials Group: Probiotics.

This example presents an industrial unit for the production of probiotics. Probiotics are live bacteria that have been reported to confer multiple health benefits on the recipients thus being of high interest to the food and biopharmaceutical industry. Probiotic seed cultures are prepared to a dedicated seed bioreactior train and the main product is cultivated in large-scale fermentors.  The bacteria are harvested via centrifugation and are blended with a carbohydrate protectant mixture prior to freeze-drying. There's a "ReadMe" file that explains several fundamental modeling concepts and functionalities of SuperPro, including equipment sharing and staggered mode operation of equipment resources.
The process model file and a detailed description about the process model can be found in the Pharmaceuticals subfolder of the Examples folder.

f15. Mettalurgy Group: Aluminum Production.

The process model of this example presents a flowsheet for the production of primary aluminum from bauxite ore based on the Bayer and Hall-Heroult processes. The Feed Preparation section of the flowsheet performs the comminution and desilication of the ore by grinding and alkaline leaching. In the Leaching And Precipitation section, aluminum is leached out of the ore and dissolved in the alkaline pregnant solution as aluminate. Within the same section, the dissolved aluminum is hydrolyzed and precipitated as aluminum hydroxide. Finally, in the Electro-reduction section, the precipitated hydroxide is first washed to remove the retained aluminate solution and then calcined to anhydrous alumina, melted and reduced to aluminum metal via electro-reduction on carbon anodes.
The process model file and a detailed description about the process model can be found in the Metallurgy subfolder of the Examples folder.

f16. Pharmaceuticals Group: Hyaluronic Acid.

This example describes the microbial production of Hyaluronic Acid. Hyaluronic Acid is a highly viscous and hygroscopic polysaccharide that has numerous medical and cosmetic applications. In this example, Hyaluronic Acid is produced by fed-batch fermentation, recovered by centrifugation, and purified by ultrafiltration, activated carbon treatment and isopropanol precipitation. The 'Readme' file for that example, explains how to model fermentation processes in fed-batch mode. This example is recommended to users interested in the production of medium-to-high value bioproducts, such as cosmetic ingredients.
The process model file and a detailed description about the process model can be found in the Pharmaceuticals subfolder of the Examples folder.

f17. Food Processing Group: Ice Cream Production.

This example analyzes an ice cream production process. Ice cream is a frozen mixture of milk and milk ingredients, sugar and other sweeteners, stabilizers, emulsifiers and flavorings. This mixture is homogenized, pasteurized and then frozen rapidly while agitating, in order to mix air, another ingredient of ice cream, which increases the mixture volume. This simple frozen dessert, is the favorite treat of a large percentage of the population and is consumed globally in large quantities. There are endless recipes and combinations of ingredients, as well as a lot of science and manufacturing techniques.
The process model file and a detailed description about the process model can be found in the Food Processing subfolder of the Examples folder.